Schools of Democracy?Democratic Behavior in Secular and IslamistOpposition Parties in Egypt Open Access

Benger, Karolyn Rachel (2009)

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Schools of Democracy? Democratic Behavior in Secular and Islamist Opposition Parties in Egypt

By Karolyn R. Benger This thesis challenges the assumption that civil society and its organizations act as schools of democracy. It argues that civil society organizations should be examined for their internal behavior. This thesis studies six oppositional organizations in Egypt to determine their levels of democratic behavior. It examines groups across ideological, generational, legal, and Islamist and secular divides. It finds that while all organizations studied call for democracy they do not all behave democratically internally.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction 1 Methodology 2 Data Utilized 3 Weaknesses of Data 3 Case Selection 4 Levels of Democratic Behavior 6 Calls for Democracy 6 Significance of Research 7 Civil Society 8 Literature Review 8 Theoretical Flaws 9 Assessing Democratic Behavior 11 Measuring Democratic Behavior 13 Religion and Democratic Behavior 16 Islam and Democratic Behavior 17 Secular Parties and Democratic Behavior 18 History of the Political Party System 20 Emergence of Multiple Parties 21 Restrictions of Political Parties 22 History of the Muslim Brotherhood 23 Organizations' Democratic Behavior 28 Wafd 28 Party History 28 Ideology 31 Organization Structure 32 Internal Disputes 33 Sources of Funding 33 Analysis 34 Tagammu 35 Party History 35 Internal Changes 38 Ideology 41 Organization Structure 44 Analysis 46 Ghad 49

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