Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations in Children Ages 15 Months to 5 Years Open Access

Virginia, Emma Joanne (2012)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/g732d935k?locale=en
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Abstract

Abstract

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame-retardants, and are
ubiquitous in the environment and human serum globally. The United States population has
especially high concentrations, approximately an order of magnitude above those seen in
Europe. There is increasing evidence that PBDEs cause neurodevelopmental and behavioral
toxicity and they are known endocrine disruptors. Studies have shown that young children may
have serum concentrations up to five times those of the adult population, yet few studies have
looked at individual child serum levels. The objective of this study was to measure individual
serum PBDE concentrations in a diverse demographic of children from Atlanta, Georgia with
ages of 15 months to five years. This study collected blood samples from 37 healthy children
undergoing routine surgical procedures at Children's Hospital of Atlanta (CHOA) with a high
participation rate of 93.7%. Serum samples were analyzed for six PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -85,
-99, -100, -153, and -154) using a novel liquid/liquid extraction technique developed in house
prior to GC/MS analysis. Summed PBDE concentrations ranged from 31.17 to 520.66 µmol/g
lipid. BDE-47 was the dominant congener, followed by -99 and -100. Significant associations
were found between age and BDE-154, race and BDE-100, and breastfeeding history and BDEs-
47, -99, -100, and sumPBDEs. The mean BDE-47 concentration in our population was 38.73
ng/g lipid (mean used for study comparison; median 31.15 ng/g lipid), the second highest mean
concentration recorded in children in this age range, only slightly below that measured in the
CHAMACOS cohort in California in this population age group. Our study was the first to
include a racially and social economically varied subject group in this age group in the United
States. This study will be expanded in the future to include 81 subjects as well as corresponding
house dust samples and child hand wipes.

Table of Contents


Table of Contents
1. Introduction & Background Significance ................................................................................................1
a. Background ............................................................................................................................................1
b. Toxicity & Health Effects .....................................................................................................................2

Endocrine Disruption & Reproductive Effects.......................................................................................4
Thyroid Effects .......................................................................................................................................5
Neurodevelopmental Effects ..................................................................................................................9
c. Exposure Routes & Trends.................................................................................................................10
Routes of Exposure...............................................................................................................................10
Exposure Studies & Trends ..................................................................................................................12
Child Exposures....................................................................................................................................14
2. Study Design & Methods .........................................................................................................................21
a. Study Population .................................................................................................................................21
b. Blood Samples......................................................................................................................................23
c. Chemicals & Materials........................................................................................................................23
d. Serum PBDE Extraction Method Development ...............................................................................24
Initial Serum PBDE SPE Extraction Method .......................................................................................25
Silica/Acidified-Silica Serum PBDE Clean-up ....................................................................................26
Extraction Method Recovery ................................................................................................................26
e. Final Liquid/Liquid Serum PBDE Extraction Method....................................................................27
f. Silica/Acidified-Silica Serum PBDE Clean-Up..................................................................................28
g. Method Validation...............................................................................................................................28
Abbreviated Extraction Recovery.........................................................................................................28
Quality Control Precision Validation ...................................................................................................29
Method Accuracy Validation................................................................................................................29
h. Serum PBDE Analysis ........................................................................................................................30
i. Lipid Determination.............................................................................................................................30
j. Data Analysis ........................................................................................................................................30
3. Results........................................................................................................................................................31
a. Method..................................................................................................................................................31
b. Subject Demographic Data.................................................................................................................33
c. Serum PBDE Distributions .................................................................................................................35
d. Statistical Analyses ..............................................................................................................................38
Associations ..........................................................................................................................................38
Age and Serum PBDE Concentrations .................................................................................................39
BMI and Serum PBDE Concentrations ................................................................................................39
Race and PBDE Concentrations ...........................................................................................................40
Breastfeeding History and PBDE Concentrations ................................................................................40
Sex, Insurance Status, and Serum PBDE Concentrations ....................................................................41
4. Discussion ..................................................................................................................................................41
a. Analysis Methods.................................................................................................................................41
b. Data.......................................................................................................................................................42
c. Strengths & Limitations......................................................................................................................47
d. Conclusions & Future Directions.......................................................................................................48
5. References .................................................................................................................................................51
6. Non-Print References ...............................................................................................................................56
7. Tables & Figures ......................................................................................................................................57
8. Appendices ................................................................................................................................................62
A. PBDE Instrumental Method Details GC-MS/MS............................................................................62

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