What’s HAPIN-ing in Guatemala? An analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns on the food insecurity and the economic and lifestyle practices of the HAPIN study participants in rural Jalapa, Guatemala Público

Guo, Alan (Spring 2022)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/5t34sk77s?locale=pt-BR


Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns, economic disruptions increased difficulties in accessing food and fuel globally. In rural Jalapa, Guatemala, households in the intervention group of the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) study continued to receive a free stove and continuous supply of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) fuel while the control group relied on biomass cooking fuels that they collected or purchased. This study aimed to determine the effect of the pandemic-related lockdowns on food insecurity levels, frequency of cooking practices, difficulties in accessing resources, and to assess whether the HAPIN intervention impacted any such effects. We hypothesized the pandemic-related lockdowns adversely affected these outcomes while the HAPIN intervention had a protective effect on our outcomes of interest.


Methods: A supplementary COVID-19 survey was administered between July to November 2020 to 453 participants HAPIN participants. The survey included questions on an internationally-recognized food insecurity measure and difficulties in accessing resources such as food, fuel, and medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also assessed lifestyle practices, household economics and participant COVID-19 knowledge. Descriptive analysis and regression modeling of the COVID-19 survey data was done to examine differences between the intervention and control groups of the study.


Results: Food insecurity changed minimally for the study population during the pandemic with no difference between the intervention (β=0.03782, P =0.541) and control group (β=0.04639, P=0.452). Intervention group participants reported fewer difficulties in accessing food (P=0.008), fuel (P<0.001), and transportation (P=0.025) compared to the control group. Intervention group participants were also more likely to report having no difficulties at all (P<0.001) compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of cooking practices (P=0.624), difficulties in accessing health care visits (P=0.490), medications/vaccines (P=1.000), caregiving responsibilities (P=1.000), finances (P=0.452), or receiving of economic assistance (P=0.572) between groups. 


Conclusions:  Food security changed minimally during pandemic-related government lockdowns overall and was not mitigated by the HAPIN intervention. However, the intervention did reduce difficulties in accessing food, fuel and transportation suggesting that the intervention had some protective effect ensuring access to cooking fuel and could relieve some financial and social burdens for participants. 

Table of Contents

1. Intro 1

1.1. The COVID-19 Pandemic 1

1.2. Background 3

1.2.1. Economic and social impact of lockdowns 3

1.2.2. Food Insecurity 4

1.2.3. Guatemala Context 5

1.2.4. HAPIN 6

2. Methods 7

2.1. Study site and sampling frame 7

2.2. Interview and survey tools 8

2.3. Data collection 10

2.4. Data analysis 10

2.4.1. Primary Analysis 11

2.4.2. Secondary Analysis 12

2.5. Ethics 13

3. Results 13

3.1. Descriptive Analysis 13

3.1.1. Characteristics of study participants 13

3.1.2. Primary Analysis 13

3.1.3. Secondary Objectives 16

4. Discussion 17

4.1. Summary 17

4.2. Difficulties and behaviors 18

4.3. Economic assistance 19

4.4. Food insecurity factors 20

4.5. Limitations 22

5. Conclusion 22

6. Figures and Tables 24

7. Bibliography 34

Appendix A: Interview and Survey Tools 40

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