Dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insula encode a novel subjective value prediction error signal during effort-based decision-making Open Access

Arulpragasam, Amanda (Fall 2017)

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Integrating cost and benefit information is crucial for optimal decision-making. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) have been implicated in effort-based decision-making, but it remains unknown whether computations performed by these regions are involved in the evaluation of effort, reward, or their integration. To this end, 28 healthy participants completed a novel sequential effort-based decision-making task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This task presented trial-wise information about effort costs and reward magnitude separately throughout time, allowing us to model distinct effort-based choice computations. We observed a role for dACC in subjective value discounting and choice difficulty, but not for effort cost encoding. Notably, we observed a novel role for dACC in the generation of subjective value prediction error signals as choice-relevant information unfolded. We also observed co-activation of AI with dACC as part of a network unique to this prediction error. These data help elucidate multiple computations performed by dACC during effort-based decision-making as well as provide evidence for the recruitment of AI to aid in prediction error signaling .

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Results 3

Behavioral Results 3

Computational Model 4

Neuroimaging Results 5

Subjective Value Encoding 5

Subjective Value Prediction Error 6

Spatial Specificity 7

Expectation Formation 8

Discussion 8

Limitations 11

Conclusion 12

Methods 13

Participants 13

Procedure 13

Image Acquisition 16

Behavioral Analysis 16

Subjective Value Models 16

Subjective Value Prediction Error 20

fMRI Analysis 21

References 23

Figures 32

Tables 36

Supplemental Materials 37

Supplemental Methods 37

Indifference Point Estimation and Choice Difficulty Model 37

Subjective Value Prediction Error 38

Binned Trial Analysis 38

Supplemental Results 39

Choice Difficulty 39

Subjective Value Extended 40

Supplemental References 42

Supplemental Figures 44

Supplemental Tables 47

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