Background: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid
(DHA) have been associated with improved outcomes during early infancy. Few
studies have examined the longer lasting effects of prenatal DHA supplementation
on growth and development in early childhood. A randomized double blind placebo
controlled trial was conducted in Mexico to ascertain the effects of prenatal DHA
supplementation on childhood outcomes. At the end of the initial study offspring of
supplemented primagravid women were reported to have larger birth weights and
larger head circumference at birth than offspring of women who received the
Objective: A further follow up study was conducted to examine the longer lasting effects
of prenatal supplementation on growth measures of offspring from 18 through 48
months of age.
Methods: Pregnant women in Mexico were randomly assigned to receive either 400mg
of algal DHA or a placebo during week 18 to 20 of gestation through delivery. The
children were followed from 18 months to 48 months and anthropometric data
(height and weight) were collected and analyzed. The main outcomes in the study
included weight (kg), height (cm), body mass index (BMI), height for age z-scores
and weight for height z-scores.
Results: Anthropometric measurements were obtained at 18, 24, 36 and 48 months for
732, 675, 351 and 711 of the 973 children respectively from the original study. The
overall results indicated that both the intervention and control groups were similar
from 18 to 48 months. The results from intention to treat analysis showed no
differences between DHA and placebo. Comparison of average weight gain per
month between 18-48 months revealed that offspring born to women who received
prenatal DHA gained more weight compared to those born to women who received
the placebo, however these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Mixed effect regression estimates for the effect of the intervention and the
interaction between treatment and maternal gravidity were not significant.
Conclusion: There were no long term significant effects of prenatal DHA
supplementation on child growth between 18 months to 4 years of age.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of Tables and Figures...
Chapter 1: Introduction...1
Chapter 2: Literature Review...4
DHA intakes during pregnancy and lactation...5
DHA intakes among children...9
Prenatal DHA supplementation on childhood outcomes...10
Postnatal DHA supplementation and childhood outcomes...12
DHA Supplementation of children on growth and development...13
Chapter 3: Manuscript...16
Contribution of Student...17
Study Site, Subjects and Experimental Design...20
Tables and Figures...34
About this Master's Thesis
|Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor|
|Long Term Effects of Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Early Childhood Growth in Mexico ()||2018-08-28||