South African College Students' Attitudes Regarding Smoke-Free Policies in Public Spaces, Private Spaces, and on Campus Open Access

Narula, Shana Kaur (2011)

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South African College Students' Attitudes Regarding Smoke-Free Policies in Public Spaces, Private Spaces, and on Campus
By Shana K. Narula

Tobacco control policies have been increasingly implemented globally. Thus, we examined smoking behavior and attitudes and implementation of private smoking bans among college students in South Africa. An online survey was completed by 130 University of Cape Town students; 4 focus groups among 27 college smokers were also conducted. Among the survey sample, 46.6% were female, 53.4% were White, and 41.5% smoked in the past 30 days (i.e., current smokers). Significant predictors of current smoking included being male (OR=0.34, p=.03), more friends that smoke (OR=1.34, p=.03), more frequently consuming alcohol in the past 30 days (OR=1.09, p=.02), and more days of marijuana use (OR=1.12, p=.15). Focus group data indicated that social factors (i.e., peer or familial) were major influences for smoking initiation and maintenance. While participants reported attempting to quit, common triggers for relapse and barriers to quit included stress, social environments, alcohol consumption, varying home restrictions, and the lack of policy enforcement. Survey data indicated that 6.8% disapproved of a public ban, 4.9% disapproved of smoke-free workplaces, 17.5% disapproved of restaurant bans, and 37.9% disapproved of smoke-free bars. Less negative attitudes toward smoking were associated with being younger (Coefficient=-0.67, p=.03), more days of smoking in the past 30 days (Coefficient=0.70, p

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Literature Review...8
Specific Aims...12


Naturalistic Observations...13
Survey Research...14
Focus Group Research...18


Naturalistic Observations...20
Survey Research...21
Focus Group Research...23


Result Tables:
Table 1: Naturalistic Observations...37
Table 2: Survey Participant Characteristics...38
Table 3: Bivariate analyses examining correlates of current smoking status...40
Table 4: Multivariate model identifying factors related to current smoking status...41
Table 5: Regression models predicting reactions to smoke-free policies in public, on campus, and in private spaces...42
Table 6: Focus group participant characteristics...43
Table 7: Reactions to smoking policies in public, on campus, and in private spaces...44

Figure 1: Number of days smoked among college student smokers...46
Figure 2: Percent of students reporting reactions to public policies, campus policies, and private policies...47

Appendix A: Tobacco Products Control Act and Amendments of South Africa...49
Appendix B: Percentage changes in smoking indicators in South Africa (1993 to 2007)...50
Appendix C: Main provisions of the WHO FCTC...51
Appendix D: Behavioral Ecological Model Schematic...52
Appendix E: University Student Smoking Survey...53
Appendix F: Focus Group Moderator's Guide...62
Appendix G: Focus Group Questionnaire...69
Appendix H: Survey Consent Form...72
Appendix I: Focus Group Consent Form...74

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