Implicit Biases in the Processing of Black & White Faces in Children and Adults translation missing: es.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Jones, Maria (Spring 2019)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/zp38wd79w?locale=es
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Abstract

The goal of my dissertation was to examine implicit race and gender bias in adults (N=120; Study 1)

and children (N=120; Study 2). Using a repeated measures design, a battery of novel and classic implicit bias tasks were administered in Study 1: eyetracking, visual looming, implicit association test (IAT) for racial preference and another for racial stereotypes, as well as a primed weapon identification task. Eyetracking data included looking time to facial features (eyes, nose, mouth) and pupil change for faces that varied by race and gender; images known to elicit distinct emotions were included too. Adults also completed a looming task, in which faces varying in race and gender loomed towards them; they were instructed to press a button when they thought the image would touch their own. Finally, implicit racial-stereotypes were tested in the classic IAT, in which participants had to categorize faces by race in association with either a positive or negative adjective, but also either a non-weapon or weapon object. Eyetracking data indicated that average fixation time to the nose was significantly longer for black relative to white faces, especially for black female faces. IAT scores indicated a moderate association of white faces and positive evaluations as well as a moderate association of black faces and weapons. None of the aforementioned results were moderated by either the race or gender of participants. White adults, however, were faster to identify a weapon when it was briefly preceded by a black face. This effect was positively correlated with pupil dilation to black male faces and both IATs; the latter were also positively correlated. In Study 2, child-friendly versions of the visual looming task and racial-preference IAT were administered to 6-to-10-year-old children to capture developmental changes in racial and gender implicit biases. Children did not respond differently to looming faces; this was neither moderated by the child’s race, gender, and age, nor by stimulus race or gender. Contrary to previous research, children showed no signs of a white bias. In all, findings from these studies provide novel insights into the conceptualization and development of implicit biases. 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................1

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF RACE .........................................2

EXPLICIT ATTITUDESS DO NOT ACCURATELY ASSES RACIAL BIAS ........ 3

ASSOCIATING BLACKS WITH CRIME NEGATIVELY IMPACTS BEHAVIOR .......... 4

Priming The ‘Black Man as Criminal’ Stereotype ........................................ 5

Robust Tendency to Shoot Unarmed Black Men ....................................... 6

Racial Preferences in the The Implicit Association Task ......................... 7

OVERVIEW OF STUDIES..........................................................................9

The Role of Emotion in Racial Bias ........................................................ 10

Discrete Emotion Theory........................................................................ 11

Fear & Disgust in Racial Bias.................................................................. 12

DEVELOPMENT OF RACIAL BIAS .......................................................... 13

Middle Childhood (6-10)..........................................................................14

IMPLICIT BIAS IN MINORITY CHILDREN ............................................... 15

CHAPTER 2: THREAT, DISGUST, AND IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS IN ADULTS ..........16

IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TASK..................................................................... 16

Critiques of the Implicit Association Test ..................................................... 17

RELATIONS AMONG IMPLICIT MEASURES ................................................. 19

Implicit Threat Perception & IAT Preferences ............................................. 20

Evidence from Neuroimaging Research.........................................................22

Evidence from Eyetracking Research ........................................................... 22

THE CURRENT STUDY ................................................................................. 24

METHOD ....................................................................................................... 26

Participants ................................................................................................... 26

Measures ........................................................................................................ 26

Procedure.........................................................................................................29

RESULTS ........................................................................................................... 31

Eyetracking........................................................................................................ 31

Pupillometry ......................................................................................................32

TTC of Looming Images .....................................................................................33

IATs .....................................................................................................................34

Weapon Identification ........................................................................................ 34

Relations Among the 5 Implicit Tasks ................................................................35

DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 35

CHAPTER 3: THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPLICIT & IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS ......39

EXPLICIT RACIAL BIAS DEVELOPMENT..............................................................40

THE CURRENT STUDY ......................................................................................... 42

METHOD .............................................................................................................. 44

Participants ...........................................................................................................44

Measures .............................................................................................................. 45

Procedure..............................................................................................................46

RESULTS ................................................................................................................47

Looming Task.........................................................................................................47

chIAT ......................................................................................................................47

DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................... 48

CHAPTER 4: GENERAL DISCUSSION......................................................................51

IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING FACE PERCEPTION .................................52

IMPLICATIONS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING IMPLICIT BIAS .................................... 57

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPLICIT BIAS .............................. 60

LIMITATIONS & FUTURE DIRECTIONS ................................................................. 63

CONCLUSION ..........................................................................................................64

APPENDIX A............................................................................................................66

EYETRACKING........................................................................................................ 66

LOOMING ............................................................................................................... 66

RACE IAT..................................................................................................................67

WEAPONS IAT......................................................................................................... 67

WEAPONS IDENTIFICATION ..................................................................................68

DEBRIEFING ............................................................................................................68

APPENDIX B.............................................................................................................69

LOOMING ................................................................................................................69

CHILD IAT ............................................................................................................... 70

TABLES AND FIGURES .............................................................................................93 

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