COVID-19 Case and Vaccination Rates, Thailand, 2021 Open Access

Jitpeera, Charuttaporn (Spring 2022)

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused high morbidity and mortality worldwide. COVID-19 vaccination was expected to be a game-changer for the pandemic. Thailand was one country implementing COVID-19 vaccination. This study described the characteristics of COVID-19 cases and vaccination in Thailand during 2021. An association between vaccination and case rates was estimated with potential confounders, by ecologic level (i.e., color zone, curfew by provincial authorities, tourism, and migrant movement) and considering time at two, four, six, and eight weeks. We used the Spatial Panel Model for bivariate data to explore the relationship between case rates and each variable and included weekly variables in multivariate analyses. In 2021, Thailand had 1,965,023 cases and 45,788,315 first vaccination doses (63.6% of the Thai population). High case and vaccination rates were found among 31 – 45 year olds. Vaccination rates had a positive association with case rates due to the allocation of hot spot pandemic areas in the early period. The proportion of migrants and color zones had positive associations with case rates at the provincial level. The proportion of tourists had a negative association. Vaccination should be provided to migrants, and collaboration between tourism and public health should prepare for the new era of tourism

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Problem statement 1

1.3 Purpose statement 2

1.4 Objectives 2

1.5 Significance 3

1.6 Definition of terms 3

Chapter 2: Literature Review 4

2.1 COVID-19 in Thailand 2021 6

2.2 COVID-19 vaccination in Thailand 2021 8

2.3 Public health and social measures in Thailand 2021 12

2.3.1 Color zones 14

2.3.2 Curfew by provincial authorities 15

2.3.3 Migrant workers movement control in each province 15

2.3.4 Tourism promotion and tourists control in each province 15

2.4 Related studies about the association between COVID-19 case rates and vaccination rates 16

2.5 Methods 17

2.5.1 Study design and sample 17

2.5.2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria 17

2.5.3 Data collection 18

2.5.4 Data analyses 18

2.5.5 Ethical considerations 19

Chapter 3: Manuscript 20

Introduction 22

Methods 24

Results 27

Discussion 31

Conclusion 36

Chapter 4: Conclusion and Recommendations 41

Appendices 46

References 54

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