Sulfur Amino Acid and Acetaminophen Effects on Extracellular Thiol/Disulfide Redox Potentials 公开

Mannery, Yanci Olivia (2010)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/zc77sq69n?locale=zh
Published

Abstract

Abstract
Sulfur Amino Acid and Acetaminophen Effects on Extracellular Thiol/Disulfide Redox
Potentials
By Yanci O. Mannery
Recent evidence demonstrates the importance of thiol/disulfide redox potential in
control of biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
In human plasma, cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) constitute the most abundant low
molecular weight thiol/disulfide couple, and the steady-state redox potential of this
couple, EhCySS, is one of the central physiologic systems controlling redox homeostasis.
In vivo studies show that plasma EhCySS becomes oxidized with aging, disease, and
lifestyle choices. The purpose of this dissertation was to study the effects of sulfur amino
acid (SAA) availability and acetaminophen (APAP) administration on extracellular
Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS) and potential mechanisms involved.
The first section of the dissertation used a human intestinal cell culture model to
investigate mechanisms for regulation of extracellular EhCySS. The basal surface more
rapidly adjusted EhCySS toward the physiologic value of -80 mV compared to the apical
following exposure to an oxidized condition. Experiments designed to test specific
mechanisms for regulation of EhCySS on the basal surface showed that redox regulation
required Na+ in the culture medium, suggesting a requirement for a transport system.
Transport inhibition experiments indicate that EhCySS on the basal surface is controlled
by y+L and x -
c .
The second and third sections of the dissertation were designed to test whether a)
dietary SAA availability or acute acetaminophen administration regulate plasma EhCySS
and b) SAA insufficiency alters APAP metabolism in healthy adults. With adequate SAA
intake, APAP administration oxidized the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS).
However, APAP administration with 0% SAA did not cause further oxidation beyond
APAP or 0% SAA alone. While results show that therapeutic drug use can affect plasma
EhCySS, SAA limitation was not sufficient to cause a change in the pharmacokinetic
properties for disposition of APAP in humans.
Together, these studies show that Cys and CySS transport mechanisms are
important in the regulation of plasma redox potential in human gut epithelial cells and
that plasma EhCySS is dependent both upon SAA intake and exposure to acetaminophen.
Future studies are indicated to define relevant signaling pathways for redox regulation of
the Cys and GSH pools and the responses to dietary SAA availability during illnesses
when acetaminophen is administered.

Sulfur Amino Acid and Acetaminophen Effects on Extracellular Thiol/Disulfide
Redox Potentials
By
Yanci O. Mannery
B.S., Dillard University, 2002
Advisor: Dean P. Jones, Ph.D.
Advisor: Thomas R. Ziegler, M.D.
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the
James T. Laney School of Graduate Studies of Emory University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in Molecular and Systems Pharmacology
2010

Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS










Page
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION




1
1.1
Quantitative Definition of Redox Potential



2

1.2
Intracellular Redox Environment


4

1.3
Extracellular Redox Environment
5
1.4
Factors Affecting Extracellular Cys/CySS Redox


8
Homeostasis

1.5
Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism





11

1.6
Recommended Dietary Allowance for Sulfur Amino Acids

13
1.7
Sulfur Amino Acid Availability and Thiol/Disulfide Redox

13
Homeostasis
1.8
Acetaminophen Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism


14
1.9
Chemical Detoxification and Sulfur Amino Acid Availability

16
1.10
Research Questions and Hypotheses




17

CHAPTER 2: CHARACTERIZATION OF APICAL and BASAL
THIOL/DISULFIDE REDOX REGULATION IN HUMAN COLONIC
EPITHELIAL CELLS

2.1
Abstract








35
2.2
Introduction







36
2.3
Materials and Methods






38
2.4
Results








41
2.5
Discussion








46



About this Dissertation

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
School
Department
Degree
Submission
Language
  • English
Research field
关键词
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
最新修改

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files