This dissertation examines sociolegal processes that allow Hindu nationalists and state officials to perform mass, public, anti-minority violence in Gujarat in ways that expand and deepen their power. I argue impunity is not merely the breakdown of law and order but a systematic and ongoing process of legitimizing and performing Hindu sovereignty in India. Based on ethnographic and archival research conducted over eighteen months in Gujarat, I describe long-term official and unofficial practices by which political violence against Muslims is denied and authorized within a liberal secular state. This research delineates legal trials that declare victims' testimony inconsistent and exaggerated, police documents that transform anti-minority violence into a generic 'riot,' and a legal apparatus that renders mass violence often unaccountable. Through an investigation of legal technologies, state writing practices, and everyday techniques of Hindu nationalist activists in Ahmedabad, I uncover the legal and political infrastructure of impunity that outlives recurring episodes of anti-minority violence in contemporary India.
I take as my ethnographic entry point one of India's most gruesome episodes of anti-Muslim violence in Gujarat, a Western state in India, often called the "laboratory of Hindutva" or militant Hindu nationalism. The perpetrators, armed groups of Hindu nationalists with the support of the local police, politicians, and government attacked and killed Muslims in 2002. The attacks were justified as 'reaction' to the deaths of 59 Hindu activists killed by a Muslim mob in Godhra. Subsequently, the police told Muslims "we have no orders to save you." About 1000 people, mostly Muslims, were killed in the attacks. Around 150,000 were displaced and forced to take shelter in relief camps. In 2014, Narendra Modi, who was the Chief Minister of Gujarat during the attacks against Muslims and widely criticized for allowing the violence, won a historic mandate in the national elections to become the Prime Minister of India.
Scholars, civil society, and activists often describe the recurrent exoneration of perpetrators of public violence against minorities as the failure of the rule of law. I suggest that legal frameworks of modern states sometimes function very effectively to confer impunity on perpetrators of state-abetted violence. I demonstrate that these state practices of exonerating violence are better understood as a technique of governance - a form of state authority based on the ability of those in power to control, subdue, and punish minorities within postcolonial states. Traditionally, legal processes and law-enforcement agencies are expected to address and rectify such wrongs. In contemporary India, however, legal practices frequently impede accountability after everyday and extraordinary violence against minorities. This generates an urgent problem in Indian society: Why is political violence against minorities most often legally unaccountable?
In 2010-13, I spent eighteen months attending criminal
trials, interviewing survivors, paralegals, NGO workers, Hindu
nationalist activists, and analyzing police and legal documents in
Ahmedabad, Gujarat. My fieldwork included both Muslim and Hindu
communities, activists, courts and NGOs. By embedding modes of
unaccountability in the heart of everyday legal and state
practices, I show why 'spectacular violence' does not disturb
everyday politics, but is an important force to claim public
legitimacy and strengthen state power.
Table of Contents
Chapter One: INTRODUCTION 1Why Gujarat? 8 Ahmedabad: A Divided City 11 Action and Reaction 15 The Paradox of Gujarat 2002 24 Activism and Trials in the Aftermath 32 The Impunity Effect 44 Communal Violence in India 52 The Paper Trail 56
Law and Order in India's "Hindu" State 60Chapter Outline 66 Conclusion 71 Chapter Two: Putting Victims on Trial 74 Meeting the Witness 78 Activism as Proceduralism 83 Breaking the Witness 91 Producing the Survivor as Non-Witness 98 The Verdict 106 Crime and Punishment 111 Legal Technologies of Denial 114 Conclusion 117 Chapter Three: The Paper Trail of Impunity: Tracing the Police FIR 121 The Beginning is the End 124 The Preface: Action and Reaction 127 The Omnibus FIR 131 Gujarat Bandh: The Erasure of Witnesses 137 Languages of Violence 143 The Trace 147 Conclusion 149 Chapter Four: Exaggeration and Contradiction: Violence against Women 154 Sexual violence in the Gujarat pogrom 162 The Unspeakable? 167 Unmaking Evidence 171 The Question of Rape 175 Gendered Violence as Exaggeration 178 How Law Denies 185 Conclusion 186
Chapter Five: What Kind of Hindu Are You? Everyday Techniques of Hindu Nationalism 188Beyond the Exception 189 Bajrang Dal and the VHP 194 Meeting the "Boys" 199 The Rule of the Mob 202 Temple # 2 211 Cow Protection 215 Conclusion 221
Chapter Six: Once Upon a Riot: Narrative Analysis and the Identity Theory of Hindu-Muslim Violence 225What Everyone Knows... 226 Rioting and Impunity 232 Writing the Riot 236 The First Information Report 242 Mediating the Riot 246 Beyond the Riot... 249 Unraveling the "Riot" 253 Narratives and Violence 257 Conclusion 259 Chapter Seven: CONCLUSION 263 Works Cited 279
About this Dissertation
|Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor|
|Aftermath of a Riot Foretold: Violence, Impunity and Sovereignty in Gujarat, India ()||2018-08-28||