Excessive Police Force and Mental Health: Examining the Relationship of Stop-and-Frisk and Psychological Distress in New York City 公开

Dacuan, Lindsay Barr (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/xg94hp887?locale=zh
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Abstract

From the early 1990's up to present day, New York City's (NYC) zero tolerance stop-and-frisk policy has permitted police to use reasonable suspicion as justification for approaching, questioning and physically searching any city resident as a suspect of a crime. The high rate of stops yet low rate of crimes identified through this practice suggested stop-and-frisk increased surveillance threat, procedural injustice and violence exposure, all of which have been associated with poor mental health outcomes, in communities disproportionately targeted by stop-and-frisk. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between stop-and-frisk and mental health in NYC communities at the neighborhood level. This cross-sectional, ecological study analyzes data from the 2013 NYC Community Health Survey (CHS) and New York City Police Department Stop Question and Frisk Database (NYPD SQF). Stop-and-frisk variables included in the study are overall stops, stops with no arrest and stops with a frisk. Outcomes of psychological distress and nervousness are measured with the Kessler 6 (K6) that was embedded into the CHS. Bivariate models were used to explore associations of stop-and-frisk variables with psychological distress and nervousness. Multivariable models incorporate one stop-and-frisk variable, an additional variable (mean age, percent of residents who were Black Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and female) and psychological distress or nervousness. By analyzing these data, these results suggest that there is no significant relationship between stop-and-frisk and psychological distress and there is a significant relationship between stop-and-frisk and nervousness. These results suggest that stop-and-frisk is more closely associated with mental well being rather than severe mental illness. In addition, findings from this study along with limitations faced offer several directions for research to further understanding this relationship.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction................6

Chapter 2: Literature Review.........11

Chapter 3: Methods......................26

Chapter 4: Results.......................34

Chapter 5: Discussion...................39

Figures and Tables........................46

References..................................53

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