"That Ye Judge With Justice": Faith-Based Arbitration by Muslims in an American Context translation missing: zh.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Bambach, Lee Ann (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/xd07gt03x?locale=zh
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Abstract

This dissertation explores the use of faith-based Islamic arbitration in the United States, describing the types of forums that exist, how they function, and how they interact with the U.S. legal system. It concludes that the actual use of such services remains relatively limited and should be viewed as just another variety of faith-based alternative dispute resolution (ADR) and given the same level of acceptance - and scrutiny - as ADR grounded in other faith traditions. Islamic arbitration can work comfortably beneath U.S. law and, in the relatively rare instances of conflict, state or federal law will always trump as a matter of law.

Chapter one places Islamic ADR within historical context, examining how other religious and cultural groups have used faith-based and culturally specific ADR from the earliest days of colonial settlement to the present. Chapter two focuses on two contemporary systems of faith-based arbitration that provide a precedent for Islamic arbitration: Jewish rabbinic tribunals (batei din) and Christian conciliation services. Chapter three provides a comparative context, examining Islamic arbitration services proposed or currently used in Canada and Great Britain.

Chapter four explores the interaction between classical Islamic legal traditions regarding arbitration, known as taḥkīm, and modern U.S. arbitration law, analyzing both court cases and proposals to establish Islamic arbitration services in the U.S. to demonstrate that these can be offered in a manner that is rooted in Islamic tradition, yet complies with existing U.S. law.

Chapter five describes the different types of Islamic arbitration services that currently exist in the United States, how they work, and how they interact with the U.S. legal system.

Chapter six concludes by looking to the future of Islamic arbitration and ADR services, noting serious concerns over their effect on the rights of individuals, especially women, and explores the impact of so-called "anti-sharia" laws. Finally, it proposes three models for Islamic arbitration/ADR services designed to provide services efficiently and pursuant to current U.S. legal norms.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................ 2

Background: Religious Freedom and Fear in the United States............................. 5

The Pattern Repeats? Muslims in the United States............................................ 9

Faith-Based Uses of the U.S. Legal System..................................................... 21

This Dissertation........................................................................................ 26

CHAPTER ONE:
A HISTORY OF FAITH-BASED AND CULTURALLY SPECIFIC ADR IN THE U.S
..... 31

Colonial Era................................................................................................ 36

--Early Christian Settlers............................................................................... 36

--Early Jewish Settlers.................................................................................. 39

--Quakers................................................................................................... 41

Nineteenth-Century Religious Communities....................................................... 46

--"Utopian" Communities............................................................................... 47

--Latter-Day Saints (Mormons)....................................................................... 50

Immigrant Groups........................................................................................ 55

--Norwegian................................................................................................ 56

--Chinese.................................................................................................... 59

--"Gypsies" - Roma and Travelers.................................................................... 67

--Jewish...................................................................................................... 75

Conclusion................................................................................................... 83

CHAPTER TWO:

MODERN USES OF FAITH-BASED DISPUTE RESOLUTION: JEWISH BATEI DIN

AND CHRISTIAN CONCILIATION................................................................... 90

U.S. Arbitration Law....................................................................................... 92

Beit Din Services........................................................................................... 95

Christian Conciliation Services........................................................................ 102

Case Law Analysis........................................................................................ 107

Conclusion................................................................................................... 122

CHAPTER THREE:
ISLAMIC TRIBUNALS IN CANADA AND
GREAT BRITAIN.................................. 125

Canada........................................................................................................ 127

--Muslims in Canada...................................................................................... 127

--Ontario Sharia Debate................................................................................. 130

--Aftermath.................................................................................................. 139

Great Britain................................................................................................. 142

--Muslims in Great Britain................................................................................ 142

--Muslim Tribunals in Great Britain.................................................................... 146

* Sharia Councils............................................................................................ 147

* Muslim Arbitration Tribunal............................................................................ 151

--Criticisms of British Islamic Tribunals............................................................... 155

Conclusion and Recommendations...................................................................... 169

CHAPTER FOUR:
ARBITRATION IN ISLAMIC TRADITION AND U.S. LAW
...................................... 175

Tahkim in Islamic Tradition............................................................................... 177

--Basis in Qur'an and Sunna.............................................................................. 177

--Tahkim in Islamic Law................................................................................... 179

--Tahkim in an American Context....................................................................... 187

ADR and Arbitration Law in the United States....................................................... 188

--Types of ADR............................................................................................... 189

--History of Arbitration in the United States......................................................... 192

--Current Arbitration Law.................................................................................. 194

Islamic Arbitration Cases in U.S. Courts.............................................................. 198

Proposals to Establish Formal Islamic Arbitration Systems in the U.S........................ 204

Conclusion: Potential Benefits of Harmonizing Islamic Arbitration with U.S. Law......... 212

CHAPTER FIVE:
ISLAMIC ARBITRATION IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY
.................................... 217

Methodology................................................................................................... 219

Types of Islamic Arbitration Services.................................................................. 225

(1) Informal alternative dispute resolution (ADR) services offered in mosques

by individual imams......................................................................................... 226

(2) Mosque-affiliated arbitration services............................................................. 231

(3) Ad-hoc arbitration committees....................................................................... 241

(4) Arbitration services offered by independent religious scholars............................. 243

(5) Sect-specific ADR services............................................................................ 265

(6) Arbitration by U.S.-trained Muslim lawyers...................................................... 282

Conclusion...................................................................................................... 282

CHAPTER SIX:
THE FUTURE OF ISLAMIC ARBITRATION IN THE UNITED STATES
........................ 290

Potential Hurdles to Islamic Arbitration Services in the U.S...................................... 292

--Concerns Raised by the Privatization of Justice.................................................... 293

* Pressure on Individuals to Use Arbitration........................................................... 294

* Impact of Sharia on Individual Rights................................................................. 299

* Hegemonic Control / Who Has a Voice Within the System?.................................... 305

--Anti-Sharia Legislation..................................................................................... 309

* History of Anti-Sharia Legislation....................................................................... 310

* Potential Impact of Anti-Sharia Legislation........................................................... 321

--Hurdles within the Muslim Community................................................................. 328

Possible Models for Islamic Dispute Resolution Services............................................ 333

--National Three-Person Panel System................................................................... 334

--"Template" System.......................................................................................... 340

--National Database of Islamic Dispute Resolution Professionals................................. 342

Conclusion........................................................................................................ 345

APPENDIX A:
Mosques and Islamic Centers in the U.S. Providing "Sharia Arbitration"........................ 361

APPENDIX B:
Other Mosques and Islamic Centers in the U.S. Providing "Arbitration"......................... 364

APPENDIX C:
Independent Arbitration Services by Religious Scholars............................................. 365

APPENDIX D:

Examples of Arbitration Clauses in Mosque/Islamic Center Organizational Documents..... 366

BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................................ 368

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