Forming the Mind of Christ: The Protreptic Unity of 1 Corinthians 8:1-11:1 公开

Dixon, Edward Pennington (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/wh246s69d?locale=zh
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Abstract

Scholarship on 1 Cor 8:1-11:1 is yet to examine how Paul teaches a form of moral reasoning that he wishes the Corinthians to adopt. Scholars regularly anchor explanations of the argumentative coherence of 1 Cor 8:1-11:1 in the practical instructions Paul gives the Corinthians. Whether Paul envisions total abstinence or some form of compromise, the locus of previous studies lies in Paul's practical advice.

In response to this shortcoming, the current study reads Paul next to Seneca, a first-century teacher of moral reasoning. Like other ancient moralists, Seneca's goal was to create phronimoi-i.e., wise thinkers who could reason well in practical decisions. Seneca ascribed to the common philosophical belief that right action begins with right reason and right disposition. In order to teach his students to think independently, Seneca taught core philosophical principles and how to apply those principles to practical affairs.

Reading Paul alongside Seneca invites modern readers to formulate a new way of viewing Paul's goals and strategy in 1 Cor 8:1-11:1. The purpose of 1 Cor 8:1-11:1 is not simply the practical advice Paul gives, but also the disposition and mode of reasoning he teaches. Paul shares Seneca's logic that right action begins with right disposition and right reason. For Paul, however, such a disposition and form of reasoning is not grounded in the virtues, but in ἀγάπη and imitatio Christi. Throughout 1 Cor 8:1-11:1, Paul teaches the Corinthians a new mindset and mode of reasoning that reflects these foundational themes. He teaches that true freedom does not depend on gifts and rights in the gospel, but on how an individual uses those gifts and rights. True freedom requires a humble, "other"-centered mindset that is oriented towards God and neighbor. The reasoning that accompanies this mindset gives attention to the beliefs, personality, and character traits of others and demonstrates a contextual awareness of the matter at hand. First Corinthians 8:1-11:1, including its doctrines, examples, and precepts, displays the disposition and mode of reasoning that embodies ἀγάπη and emulates Christ.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1. History of Research on 1 Cor 8:1-11:1 3
1.1. Historical-Critical Approach 3
1.1.1. Partition Theory: Johannes Weiss 3
1.1.2. Unity: John Hurd 5
1.2. Historical-Grammatical Approach: Gordon Fee 9
1.3. Socio-Historical Approaches: Gerd Theissen and Dale Martin 15
1.4. Rhetorical Critical Approaches: Margaret Mitchell 23
1.5. Comparisons to Philosophical Schools: Clarence Glad 30
2. Practical Reasoning and 1 Corinthians 35
2.1. Hans Dieter Betz 36
2.2. Troels Engberg-Pedersen 39
2.3. William Beardslee 42
3. A Positive Proposal 43
4. Methodology 50
5. Overview of Argument in 1 Cor 8:1-11:1 52

Chapter 2: Moral Education in Seneca 57
1. The Goal of Moral Formation 57
Excursus: Classifications of Praecepta 61
2. Problems with Precepts in Paraenesis 65
2.1. Self-Preserving Precepts 65
2.2. Moral-Preserving Precepts 68
2.3. Advice 71
3. Teaching a New Mode of Reasoning 73
3.1. Doctrines 74
3.1.1. Doctrine Function I: Disposition 74
3.1.2. Doctrine Function II: Active Selections 79
3.1.3. Conclusion 83
3.2. Precepts 84
3.3. Exempla 93
3.3.1. Actions to Follow or Avoid 95

3.3.2. Motivation for Honorable Action 97
3.3.3. Illustrations of a Concept 101
3.3.4. Further Emphasis on Practical Reasoning 104
3.3.5. Conclusions 107
4. Doctrines, Precepts, Exempla in the Letters 107
4.1. Letter 5 108
4.2. Letter 22 110
4.3. Letter 122 113
4.4. De beneficiis 116
5. Conclusion 121

Chapter 3: Analysis of 1 Cor 8 123
1. Introduction 123
2. Two-Preliminary Issues 125
2.1. Pre-History to 1 Corinthians 126
2.1.1. No Known "Weak" Group at Corinth 126
2.1.2. Alternative Proposals to Pre-History 129
2.2. Relationship between 1 Cor 8:4 and 8:5-6 131
3. The Corinthians' Argument for the Right to Eat Idol Meat 141
4. Paul's Response: 1 Cor 8:1-13 143
4.1. 1 Cor 8:1-3: Άγάπη as the New Disposition 144
4.2. 1 Cor 8:4-13: Teaching Practical Reasoning 153
4.2.1. 1 Cor 8:4-6: 'Rights' as a Part of Christic Identity 153
4.2.2. 1 Cor 8:7-13: Teaching the Agapaic Way of Thinking 155
4.2.2.1. 1 Cor 8:7: Knowing Others 156
4.2.2.2. 1 Cor 8:8: Evaluation of Issue in Question 165
4.2.2.3. 1 Cor 8:9: Provision of an Evaluative Principle 168
4.2.2.4. 1 Cor 8:10: Provision of a Practical Scenario 170
4.2.2.5. 1 Cor 8:11: More Effects on the Weak 173
4.2.2.6. 1 Cor 8:12: Valuing the Issue in Question: A Second Look 175
4.2.2.7. 1 Cor 8:13: An Example of Practical Reasoning 176
5. Recapitulation: Paul's Argument Summarized 178
6. Conclusion 183
Chapter 4: Analysis of 1 Cor 9 186
1. Introduction 186
2. The Defense 189
2.1. 1 Cor 9:1-12a, 13-14: I am Free-I am Aware that I have Apostolic Rights 191
2.2. Redefining Apostleship 194
2.2.1. 1 Cor 9:15-18: Redefining Apostolic Self-Understanding 195
2.2.2. 1 Cor 9:19-23 and 9:12b: The Mindset that Guides Decision Making 198
2.2.3. 1 Cor 9:24-27: The Appeal to the Moral Athlete 202
2.3. Conclusion to the Defense 205
3. Apology that Functions as an Example 205
3.1. 1 Cor 9:4-12a, 13-14: Establishing a Parallel 'Right' 206
3.2. 1 Cor 9:15-18: Proper Self-Understanding in the Gospel 207
3.3. 1 Cor 9:12b, 19-23: Discerning how to Exercise 'Rights' 209
3.4. 1 Cor 9:24-27: Proper Self-Understanding in the Gospel 214
4. Conclusion 219

Chapter 5: Analysis of 1 Cor 10:1-22 221
1. Introduction 221
2. Exegetical Analysis of 1 Cor 10:1-13 223
2.1. 1 Cor 10:1-5: Establishing an Analogous Context 224
2.2. 1 Cor 10:6-11: Function of the Negative Example 227
2.2.1. 1 Cor 10:6-11: Two Common Interpretive Strategies 229
2.2.2. 1 Cor 10:6-11: A New Proposal 232
2.3. 1 Cor 10:12-13: Proper Self-Understanding in the Gospel 235
3. 1 Cor 10:14-22: Instruction in Phronēsis 244
3.1. 1 Cor 10:14: The Advice 244
3.2. 1 Cor 10:15-22: How to Recognize Idolatry 245
3.2.1. 1 Cor 10:16-17: Participation in the Body of Christ 250
3.2.2. 1 Cor 10:18: Analogy of Jewish Meal Practices 253
3.2.3. 1 Cor 10:19-21: Practical Conclusions 258
3.2.4. 1 Cor 10:22: A Surprising Warning 261
4. Conclusion: Impact on Moral Formation 262
4.1. Moral Formation of Individuals 262
4.2. Moral Formation of Community 268

Chapter 6: Analysis of 1 Cor 10:23-11:1 270
1. Introduction 270
2. Exegetical Analysis of 1 Cor 10:23-30 272
2.1. 1 Cor 10:23-24 272
2.2. 1 Cor 10:25-30 275
2.3. Exegetical Conclusions 291
3. Elements of Moral Reasoning in 10:23-11:1 291
3.1. 1 Cor 10:23-24: Principles of Deliberation 292
3.2. 1 Cor 10:25 and 27-28: Illustration of Practical Decisions 296
3.3. 1 Cor 10:26 and 10:29-30: Illustration of Reasoning behind Action 298
3.4. 1 Cor 10:31-11:1: Principles of Deliberation 301
4. Conclusion 303

Chapter 7: Conclusion 305

Bibliography 314

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