International Development and Public Religion: Changing Dynamics of Christian Mission in South Korea 公开

Lee, Hae Min (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/vm40xs237?locale=zh
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Abstract

Since the mid to late twentieth century, Christianity in the Third World has grown exponentially in size and influence, becoming increasingly polycentric - with many centers around the globe. In this process, the rise of faith-based, humanitarian, international, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has become one of the most phenomenal trends. By probing into the development practices of two major Korean organizations, Korea Food for the Hungry International (KFHI) and Good Neighbors (GN), the role that religion plays in encountering secular society is explored from various angles, drawing upon discourses in mission studies, sociology of religion, and anthropology of development. Overall, this study investigates the following hypothesis: in terms of its emerging form, humanitarian care through international development NGOs appears to be the growing interest of Korean Christian mission and this shows a new direction of Korean Christianity as public religion. However, on closer examination, a more complex reality emerges in which diverse theological and developmental ideals motivate the Korean NGOs' humanitarian efforts. This research suggests that Korean Christians' involvement in humanitarian mission has become prominent since the early 1990s spurred by changing socio-cultural, political, and economic climates in and out of Korea. As a result, the goal of Christian mission has shifted from being unidirectional to multidirectional, which now includes humanitarian enterprises that challenge global problems including poverty, disease, and illiteracy. It reveals the diversifying theological and developmental trends of Korean Christian humanitarian mission. In terms of its mission theology, KFHI represents the holistic evangelical theology that underscores both proclamation of the gospel and serving those in need. This differs from GN's humanitarian approach that highlights the universal love of God, which inspires Christians to serve others without ulterior motives. With regard to the diversifying trends in developmental approach, KFHI undertakes its development operations by mobilizing Korean Christian churches around the world, thus being strongly ecclesial, whereas GN takes an inclusive approach that embraces development partners regardless of faith tradition. KFHI and GN thus illustrate some of the reasons why it is important to consider international development as a crucial part of Korean Christian mission.

Table of Contents

Introduction (Outline of the Dissertation)

Motivations behind this Project.……………………………………………………………...7

Methodological Approaches………………………………………………………………...13

Key Terminology Used in the Dissertation………………………………………………….15

Dissertation Structure………………………………………………………………………..17

One: A Brief Historical Summary of Korean Christianity………………………….....27

Two: Introducing Three Korean Organizations: Global Mission Society (GMS), Korea Food for the Hungry International (KFHI) and Good Neighbors (GN )……..…………..49

Three: History of Mission with a Special Focus on the History of the Humanitarian Dimension of Christian Mission with respect to South Korea

I. A Brief Survey of Protestant Humanitarian Mission……………………………...................59

II. A Historical Survey of the Humanitarian Dimension of Christian Mission to and of Korea..63

III. The Historical Development in the Diversifying of the Theology of Mission within

Korean Christianity………………………………………………………………………….68

Four: Theology of Mission and Practical Theology

I. The Diversifying Public Mission Theology of Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs…….79

II. The Influence of Holistic Evangelical, Mainline Protestant, and Catholic Theologies of

Mission on Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs…………………………………………84

III. Intercultural and Interfaith Dimensions of Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs………104

Five: The Rise of Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs and its Implications in Sociology of Religion and International Development

I. The Growth of Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs and its Socio-Religious

Implications………………………………………………………………………………...121

II. Religion and its Role in International Aid and Development……………………………...135

III. Similarities and Differences Between Korean Christian Humanitarian NGOs and their

American Counterparts………………………………………………………………………151

IV. Comprehensive Community Development of Korean NGO Missionaries: A Case Study of

KFHI's Mission in Kumi, Uganda…………………………………………………………..162

Six: From ‘Development or Mission' To ‘Development as Mission'? …………………..170

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………...184

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