Analytical Methods for Pesticides and their Degradation Products in Soil Open Access

Smith, Kimberly D. (2007)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/vm40xr940?locale=en
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Abstract

The pesticide industry specifically has made a remarkable impact in the protection of food supplies but has also created unanticipated environmental and human health adverse effects. Evidence has linked pesticide exposure to almost every type of cancer possible in addition to neurodegenerative diseases, newborn deficiencies and endocrine disruption. Despite this insurmountable evidence against pesticides, the pesticide industry has become so integrated into our society that many believe that reconsidering or abolishing the industry would have multiple economic consequences (Rosenbaum 1998). Inevitably, the industry is here to stay for the time being and it becomes the duty of public health officials and scientists to limit pesticide exposure and educate the public in awareness of toxic side effects to their health and the environment. A critical part in identifying the presence of pesticides, their toxicity and ultimately their possible effect on people and the environment is the determination of the exact amount of pesticide that is present. Analytical methods are utilized to provide quantitative data to help answer many of these questions. Multiple analytical methods were examined in this research for their utility to analyze and quantitate pesticides and their degradation products in soil. Traditional and cartridge-assisted liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction including C18, polymeric, ion-exchange and a recent innovation: molecular imprinted polymer, and accelerated solvent extraction are evaluated for extraction of the target analytes. Gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic techniques are also investigated to determine optimal instrumental analysis. All methods were assessed for analytical parameters typical in method development: accuracy, precision, sensitivity, etc.

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF ACRONYMS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

Chemical Industry

Pesticide Industry

Pesticide Exposure

Environmental Monitoring for Pesticides

Analytical Chemistry Method Development and Validation Performance Parameters

Proposed Method Development

CHAPTER 2: ANALYSIS OF PARENT PESTICIDES IN SOIL

Introduction

Analytical Chemistry

Method Development

Method Validation

Conclusions

Appendix 2A: Physical and Chemical Properties of Parent Pesticides

CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN SOIL

Introduction

Tandem Mass Spectrometry Background and Optimization

Liquid Chromatography Background and Optimization

Sample Preparation - Ion Exchange Solid Phase Extraction

Sample Preparation - Molecular Imprinted Polymer Solid Phase Extraction Conclusions

Appendix 3A: Physical and Chemical Properties of Degradation Products

CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES

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