Background: National data (2017) show that Sierra Leone has an estimated prevalence of 0.7% blindness. Up to 90% or more of all blindness is due to onchocerciasis, cataract refractive errors, trachoma and other ocular complications in Sierra Leone; these are preventable conditions if access to appropriate care is available. Ebola survivors frequently have ocular complications including uveitis, glaucoma, cataract, and retinal disease.
Objective: This study seeks to assess the burden of eye disease in three tertiary eye care facilities in Sierra Leone, to determine the difference in eye disease for Ebola survivors and the general population using the three tertiary eye care facilities, and to evaluate the feasibility of a telemedicine approach to identify patients with ocular disease in Sierra Leone.
Methods: One hundred and thirty-five patients were recruited from three tertiary hospitals in Sierra Leone - Connaught Hospital (n=30), UMC Kissy Hospital (n =56) and Makeni Hospital (49). An in-person questionnaire was administered to each patient. After informed consent was obtained, an exam was given for visual acuity. Photographic imaging was also taken of both anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Questionnaire responses were analyzed using SAS 9.4 while photographic images were graded, converted into log mar visual acuity, and finally converted into Snellen visual acuity.
Results: The top 3 clinically diagnosed conditions across the health facilities were uveitis (36.3%), glaucoma (34.1%) and cataract (13.4%). Ebola survivors had a high prevalence of uveitis (51.9%) followed by glaucoma (33.3%). There was an observed significant relationship in worse eye between the general eye care population 20/166 and Ebola survivors 20/48 (p-value: 0.0090). The top four diagnoses from the anterior segment imaging were cataract (21.9%), pterygium (11.8%), posterior synechiae (7.9%), and uveitis (5.6%).
Discussion: Based on our assessment of the ocular disease burden at the three tertiary facilities, we concluded that there is a high burden of eye disease in Sierra Leone. Uveitis was more common among Ebola survivors, whereas glaucoma was more common among the general population. Telemedicine is a promising model for improving access to high-quality eye care for many Sierra Leoneans who cannot afford access to tertiary facilities in urban areas.
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About this Master's Thesis
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|File download under embargo until 20 May 2020||2019-05-04||File download under embargo until 20 May 2020|