Mineral Intakes and Risk of Incident Colorectal Cancer Open Access

Swaminath, Samyukta (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/tm70mv665?locale=en
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Abstract

Previous epidemiologic findings suggest that mineral intakes may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. Other than for calcium, there are few reported epidemiologic studies on mineral intake-colorectal cancer associations, and the results for minerals, other than calcium, are inconsistent. Accordingly, we investigated associations of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc intakes, separately and combined, with incident colorectal cancer. We analyzed data from the Iowa Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 41,837 55-69 year-old women, who completed a 127-item Willett food frequency questionnaire in 1986 and were monitored for cancer incidence via the State Health Registry of Iowa. After applying exclusion criteria, 35,221 women were available for analyses, including 1,744 who developed colorectal cancer during follow up. Participants' mineral intakes were ranked 1-5, with lower ranks indicating low mineral intakes and higher ranks indicating high mineral intakes, except for iron, copper, sodium, and phosphorus, the rankings were reversed to account for their possible pro-carcinogenic properties. The rankings were summed to create each woman's mineral score. The mineral score-incident colorectal cancer association was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintile of the mineral score, the hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.95; p-trend = 0.001). These findings suggest that higher intakes of calcium, iodine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, zinc, combined with lower intakes of copper, iron, sodium, and phosphorus may be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer among older women.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND................................................................................................. 1

CHAPTER II: MINERAL INTAKES AND RISK OF INCIDENT COLORECTAL CANCER ........................ 15

Abstract...........................................................................................................................15

Introduction......................................................................................................................16

Methods...........................................................................................................................19

Results.............................................................................................................................24

Discussion.........................................................................................................................26

References........................................................................................................................32

Tables..............................................................................................................................50

CHAPTER III: FUTURE DIRECTIONS ....................... ....................... ....................... ................. 53

APPENDICES.....................................................................................................................55

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