Papyrus 967: A Variant Literary Edition of Ezekiel Open Access

Lilly, Ingrid Esther (2010)

Permanent URL:


Papyrus 967: A Variant Literary Edition of Ezekiel
By Ingrid E. Lilly

The Greek papyrus codex 967 (hereafter p967) manifests a different edition of Ezekiel from the Hebrew Masoretic Text (hereafter MT). This study defines and uses a "manuscript approach" to argue that p967 qualifies as a variant literary edition of Ezekiel.

Methodlogically, this study is rooted in text-critical analysis and shows that p967's variants usually reflect the Old Greek translation and in many cases an early Hebrew edition of Ezekiel. The literary analysis of p967 and MT procedes according to sets of variants that participate in literary Tendenzen, adopting the principle of coherence found in Literaturkritik. In so doing, the literary analysis identifies the scope and literary character of p967 and MT's meaningful textual variants. Finally, the codicological analysis explores p967's manuscript as an historical and sociological artifact. Specifically, the study examines the paratextual marks in Ezekiel, Daniel, and Esther in order to describe the interpretive and functional interests of a 3rd century C. E. community. According to this manuscript approach, the study argues that p967 contains an ancient alternate literary edition of Ezekiel different from MT.

Papyrus 967: A Variant Literary Edition of Ezekiel
Ingrid E. Lilly
MAR, Yale Divinity School, 2004
BS, Gordon College, 1996
Advisor: Brent A. Strawn
Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary, 2001
M.Div., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1995
B.A., Point Loma Nazarene College, 1992
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the
James T. Laney School of Graduate Studies of Emory University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
in Graduate Division of Religion
Hebrew Bible

Table of Contents

Table of Chapters:
1. Introduction: A Manuscript Approach to p967
2. Understanding p967's Text: History of Text-Critical Scholarship
3. A Coherence Approach to Literary Analysis: Discerning Tendenzen
4. The Tendenzen: Text-Critical Analysis
5. The Tendenzen: Exegetical Readings of p967 and MT as Alternate Literary Editions
6. Codigological Analysis of p967
7. Conclusion

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1: Introduction: A Manuscript Approach to p967

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Variant Literary Editions and the Problem of Method

1.2.1. Integrating Literary and Text-Critical Methods

1.2.2. Defining Literary Criticism

1.3. Previous Scholarship on p967 as a Variant Literary Edition

1.3.1. Johan Lust and Ashley Crane

1.3.2. Lust's Tradition History Approach

1.3.3. Crane's Historical-Critical Approach

1.3.4. Crane's Text-Comparative Approach

1.3.5. Lust's Coherence Approach

1.4. Returning to Textual Criticism of p967

1.5. The Contents of the Present Study
Chapter 2: Understanding p967's Text: History of Text-Critical Scholarship

2.1 Introduction

2.2. The Critical Publications of p967

2.2.1. Chester Beatty

2.2.2. Schiede/Princeton

2.2.3. Madrid

2.2.4. Universität Köln

2.2.5. Summary of Publications

2.3. Text Groups, Alignment, and the Old Greek: Three Phases of Research

2.3.1. Phase 1: High Esteem for p967: Kenyon, Johnson, Gehman, Kase, and
2.3.2. Phase 2: Distancing p967 from the Old Greek: Joseph Ziegler and the Göttingen LXX
2.3.3. Phase 3: No New Ground: The 1977 Göttingen LXX
2.3.4. Summary and Discussion of p967 and its Hebrew Vorlage
2.3.5. Summary and Discussion of p967, the Hebrew, and the Old Greek

2.4. p967, Literal Translation Technique, and Linguistic Non-Homogeneity
2.5. Quality of p967 as a Textual Witness - Assessing Arguments for Errors
2.6. Conclusion
Chapter 3: A Coherence Approach to Literary Analysis: Discerning Tendenzen
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Procedure: Organizing Variants according to Tendenzen
3.3. Introduction to the Tendenzen
3.4. Textual Lemmata According to Tendenzen
Chapter 4: The Tendenzen: Text-Critical Analysis
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Textual Discussion

4.2.1. General Alignment
4.2.2. Hexaplaric Notations

4.3. Text-Critical Analysis of Variants

4.3.1. Isolated p967 Variants Summary of Results

4.3.2. Variants between p967 and B Summary of Results

4.3.3. MT and the Hebrew Vorlage of p967 p967 Variants based on an Alternate Hebrew Vorlage Pseudo-Ezekiel: A Variant Hebrew Literary Edition of Ezek 37:2-10 Summary of Results

4.4. Textual Discussion of 12:26-28, 32:24-26, and 36:23c-38

4.4.1. Introduction
4.4.2. Ezek12:26-28
4.4.3. Ezek 32:24-26
4.4.4. Ezek 36:23c-38

4.5. Conclusions
Chapter 5: Literary and Exegetical Readings of p967 and MT
5.1. Introduction
5.2. "Prophecy" Tendenzen

5.2.1. Intertextual Center: Disputation on Prophecy in Ezekiel 12-13
5.2.2. "Prophetic Temporality" Tendenz: Time and Fulfillment in Eezkiel Programmatic Statements about Prophecy and Fulfillment Date Reckoning Ezekiel‟s Temporal Structure Summary of "Prophetic Temporality" Tendenz

5.2.3. "Divine Speech" Tendenz: Prophetic and Oracle Formulae Formulae of Prophetic Speech Recognition Formula The Nation-Recognition Formula

5.2.4. Summary of Section: "Prophecy" Tendenzen

5.3. "Fate of the Slain" Tendenzen

5.3.1. Intertextual Center: The Pit in Ezekiel 32:17-32 Exegesis of Ezekiel 32:17-32 in p967 The Population in the Pit: MT and p967 Emphasis of the MT: The Uncircumcised The Giants in p967

5.3.2. "Fate of the Slain" Tendenzen: Variants across the Rest of Ezekiel Tyre's Fate in the Midst of the Sea "Hordes" Tendenz: The End for Enemy Hordes Hordes in the Pit of Chapter 32 Hordes of Egypt Hordes on the Day of the Lord in Chapter 7 Hordes and Tyre "Death on the Field" Tendenz Egypt and Pharaoh in Ezekiel 29:5 Edom in Ezekiel 35:8 Exegetical Significance of "Death on the Field" "Bones" Tendenz Bones in the Pot of Ezekiel 24 Location in the Pot Allegory An Interpretive Frame to the Pot Allegory Bones in Ezekiel 37 and 24 Summary of "Bones" Tendenz "New Life" Tendenz "New Life" in MT "New Life" in p967 Summary of the "New Life" Tendenz

5.3.3. Summary of Section: "Fate of the Slain" Tendenzen

5.4. Tendenzen Related to Ezekiel 36:23c-38

5.4.1. Intertextual Center: The Promises in Ezekiel 36:23c-38 Ezekiel 36:23c-38 as an Introduction to Chapter 37 in MT Ezekiel 36:23c-38 and Chapter 11 in MT Ezekiel 36 as a Transition to Chapters 38-39 in p967

5.4.2. "Heart/Spirit" Tendenz "Heart/Spirit" Tendenz in MT "Heart/Spirit" Tendenz in p967 "Heart/Spirit" Tendenz: Two Cases Where p967 and MT Agree Against Other Greek Witnesses Summary of "Heart/Spirit" Tendenz

5.4.4. Summary of Section: Tendenzen Related to Ezekiel 36:23c-38

5.5. "Gog-Magog" Tendenzen: Variants Related to Ezekiel 38-39

5.5.1. Geographic Tendenz: Gog's Entourage of Nations
5.5.2. Word Plays with Meshech ...
5.5.3. Plunder and Spoil Tendenz
5.5.4. Summary of Section: "Gog-Magog" Tendenzen

5.6. Summary of Chapter: p967 and MT as Variant Literary Editions
Chapter 6: Codicological Analysis of p967 Ezekiel
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Description of p967 Codicological Features

6.2.1. Manuscript Identification Circumstances and Origins of Discovery Contents of the Codex Probable Date

6.2.2. Overall Form and Format Mega-Format Format Characteristics

6.2.3. Style of Writing (Within Blocks of Text)
6.2.4. Use of Internal Spacing (Absence of Ink Within Blocks of Text)
6.2.5. Explicit In-Line Markings (Presence of Ink Within Blocks of Text) Plus Corrections Minus Corrections Punctuation: Paragraph Marks Punctuation: Sense Marks Breathings Accents Contractions: Numbers Contractions: Nomina Sacra Contractions and Suspensions: Nu at End of Line Diple Dieresis

6.2.6. Marginal Markings (Outside of Blocks of Text) Page Numbers Marginal Words / Marginal Notations Marginal Marks and Symbols [Tables of Ezekiel Marks] Category 2: Ecclectic Marks Category 3: Diagonal Slashes Category 4: Horizontal Slashes Category 5: Idiosyncratic Slashes Category 6: Larger Ink Blots Category 7: Clusters of Small Dots

6.3. Relation of Select Features to Reading Tradition

6.3.1. Christian Features
6.3.2. A Liturgical Function? What the Codex Format Says about Function What the Marginal Marks in p967 Say about Function Marginal Marks and Reading Use

6.3.3. Analysis of the Interpretive Interests of the Reading Community Marginal Words / Marginal Notations Ezek. 28:9-19 (Concerning Merchants) Ezek. 30:1-13 (God Fulfills) Ezek. 32:30-33:8 (Uniting?) Ezek. 39:23-37:4 (Concerning Resurrection) Ezek. 43:1-9 (Concerning Repentance / Concerning God's Holiness / Concerning Repentance)

6.3.4. Description of the Interpretive Interests of the Reading Community

6.4. The Whole Codex: Ezekiel in Light of p967 Daniel and Esther

6.4.1. Introduction
6.4.2. Discussion of the Editions of Daniel and Esther in p967 The Texts General Thematic Connections Among the Books

6.4.3. The Reading Community's Marks in Daniel and Esther Sense Divisions (Sense Marks) Marked Sections of Reading Activity A Liturgical Section: The Hymns in Daniel 3 Analysis of Interpretive Interests Dan 3:57-82, 83-88a, 88b-90, 91-97 Dan 7:12 Dan 9:2 Dan 10:1 Est 13:1-7 Discussion of Interpretive Interests

6.5. Conclusion
6.6. Images
Chapter 7: Conclusion
7.1. Summary

7.1.1. The Text of p967
7.1.2. p967 and MT as Variant Literary Editions
7.1.3. p967's Literary Edition and its Codex

7.2. Implications of Scribalism to Variant Literary Editions

7.2.1. Variant Literary Editions and Scribalism
7.2.2. Variant Literary Editions, Scribalism, and Prophetic Books


Table I: Contents of p967 Publications
Table II: Alignment of p967 among the Greek Versions
Table III: Abbreviations
Table IV: Ziegler's 1977 Text Groups
Table V: Multiple Translator Theory: Select Data from McGregor's 1985 Study
Table VI: Textual Lemmata in Canonical Order

About this Dissertation

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
Subfield / Discipline
  • English
Research field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files