Gender Differences in Food Intake and Dietary Patterns among Adults across Households in South India Restricted; Files Only

Kommajosula, Apoorva (Summer 2021)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/td96k383q?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study is to examine gender differences in food intake, dietary diversity, and dietary patterns across rural and urban households in a remote district in South India.

Methods

The sample is representative of adults living in Vijayapura district, Karnataka State, India. The Nutrition Transition Food Frequency Questionnaire (NT-FFQ) quantitative instrument was used to collect cross-sectional data on frequency of intake of 69 food items. Student t-tests were used to compare weekly food intake of food groups and food variety between men and women and urban and rural households. Principal components analyses were conducted to identify dietary patterns. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between weekly food consumption and gender as well as the association between demographic/socioeconomic characteristics and dietary patterns. 

Results

Women had more frequent consumption of pulses, fruits, dairy, local sweets, and global food items, such as global breads, cereals, and sweets, and slightly less varied diets (49 vs. 50 food items) than men. Non-vegetarian items were more frequently consumed by men than women. Urban residents had frequent intake of more expensive food items, such as fruit and dairy, and slightly more varied diets (51 vs. 50 food items, for urban men and women; 49 vs. 48 food items, for rural men and women) than rural residents. Four dietary patterns were identified. The “Snacks, Cereals, and Sweets” dietary pattern was the dominating pattern for adults. Men were more likely to consume the “Non-Vegetarian” and “Vegetarian” dietary patterns whereas women were more likely to consume the “Dairy, Fruits, & Nuts” dietary pattern. 

Conclusion

Food consumption, dietary diversity, and most dietary patterns were significantly different between men and women. Possible explanations for such differences include cultural and gender norms, access to food, and food availability. Findings emphasize the need to understand gender differences in food patterns to inform gender-appropriate diet recommendations and improve nutrition outcomes among adults in this nutrition transition context.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………..…...1

Background……………………………………………………………………………......2

Objective and Research Question……………………………………………..…......2

LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………...…….........4

Indian Dietary Guidelines………………………………………………………...…….4

Measuring Dietary Patterns…………………………………………………....……...4   

Diet-Related Diseases……………………………………………………………..........5

Double Burden of Malnutrition…………………………………………………..……5

Non-Communicable Disease……………………………………………………………6

Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition…………………………………….......8

Food Environment and Food Choice…………………………………………….......9

Globalization and Nutrition Transition……………………………………….........9

Food Choice and Procurement…………………………………………………….....10

Major Sources of Food Supply………………………………………………............11

Influential Factors for Dietary Diversity……………………………………..........12

Differences in Nutrition and Dietary Intake Patterns……………………...…...13

Age………………………………………………………………………………….......….13

Gender……………………………………………………………………………......……14

Rural and Urban Areas………………………………………………………..............15

Household and Family Environment…………...…………………………...……...16

Figure 1. Representation of Conceptual Framework…………………..……..….18

Narrative Description………………………………………………………..….……...19

DATA & METHODS……………………………………………………………...………20

Study Background…………………………………………………………………….….20

Study Population & Data Source……………………………………………..……...20

Data Collection……………………………………………………………………..…....20

Variables……………………………………………………………………………..….…21

Outcome Variables…………………………………………………………………..…..21

Covariates...…………………………………………………………………………...….22

Data Preparation..……………………………………………………………………....23

Data Cleaning and Coding...……………………………………………………….....23

Statistical Analyses...……………………………………………………………....…..23

Descriptive Analyses.………………………………………………………...............23

Food Consumption Frequency..……………………………………………………...24

Linear Regression Modeling for Food Consumption Patterns…..….……......25

Dietary Pattern Analyses……….……………………………………………………..26

RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………….....28

Population Characteristics……………………………………………………...…....28

Overall Food Consumption Patterns…………………………………………….....28

Food Consumption Patterns by Gender…………………………………………….29

Food Consumption Patterns by Gender and Region……………………………..30

Adjusted Linear Regression Models of Food Intake and Gender………………33

Dietary Pattern Analyses……………………………………………………………...34

DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………..37

Strengths and Limitations………………………………………………………….…42

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….43

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………...45

TABLES………………………………………………………………………….……….61

APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………....……..71

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