Impact of Personal Preference and Motivation on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of WIC Participating Mothers and Children in Atlanta, Georgia Open Access

Chen, David Y. (2011)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of psychosocial and
sociodemographic factors on the consumption of fruits and vegetables for women and
children participating in Women Infant Children (WIC) in metro-Atlanta.
Background: Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been linked to decreased rates of
chronic diseases, such as, cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Only a quarter
of Americans meet the recommended-daily intake of five servings of fruits and vegetables.
Previous WIC studies have shown that low-income populations are linked with low intake
of fruits and vegetables. Understanding psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants
are crucial for successful development of new WIC initiatives and education programs.
Methods: Data from Emory's WIC Study was used in this analysis to determine participants'
personal preference and motivation on fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and
vegetable consumption for each participant was determined by adding together six
different consumption variables: fruit juice, fruit, potatoes, carrots, green salad and other
vegetables. A dichotomous variable was created for fruit and vegetable consumption
classifying participants on meeting the recommended daily intake of five servings of fruits
and vegetables. Eight psychosocial variables were analyzed that measured to personal
preference and motivation. Sociodemographic variables of age, race, education, martial
status and size of household were analyzed as confounders. Frequencies were recorded for
fruit and vegetables consumption, psychosocial determinants and sociodemographic
variables. A bivariate analysis was done to determine the significance of each psychosocial
and sociodemographic variable on fruit and vegetable consumption.
Results: Only 27.7% of the mothers and 44.2% of children consumed 5 or more servings of
fruits and vegetables a day. Variables regarding food preparation and spoilage tested
significant for effect on fruit and vegetable consumption. Other psychosocial and
sociodemographic variables were not significant on effecting consumption, but showed
significant trends.
Conclusion: Food storage and preparation as a motivation factor resulted in
significant differences in meeting the criteria for fruit and vegetable consumption.
Other variables analyzed in this study need to be further examined due to
weaknesses in sample size and demographic construct of this study. Future
initiatives should include cooking classes and emphasis on food storage and
preparation techniques.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction.. 1

Importance of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.. 4

Background on WIC and FMNP.. 5

Potential Barriers for the WIC Population.. 7

Methods.. 8

Study Design.. 8

Study Population.. 9

Data Measures. 10

Analysis. 14

Results.. 17

Discussion.. 21

Strengths and Weaknesses. 24

Conclusion.. 25

References.. 26

Tables.. 29

Appendices.. 37

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