A High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Can Reduce the Expression of Anxiety in Socially Housed Female Rhesus Macaques Open Access

Ha, Quynh-Chau (2009)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/t435gd24k?locale=en
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Abstract


A High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Can Reduce the Expression of Anxiety in Socially
Housed Female Rhesus Macaques

By Quynh-Chau Ha
Socially housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have a dominance hierarchy that is
similar to the stratified society of humans and therefore can be used as an ethologically
valid and translational model for the study of psychosocial stress, food intake, and
emotionality. We used 2 groups of 5 socially housed female rhesus monkeys and
observed their caloric-intake, using automated feeders, and behaviors under different diet
conditions. Under the first diet condition, only a low-calorie (LCD) diet was available for
3 weeks, and under the second diet condition, the monkeys were given a choice between
LCD and a high-calorie diet (HCD). Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) for
repeated measures, and post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction were used to assess
statistical significance. The data showed that all animals preferred HCD over LCD, and
subordinate females consumed significantly more of both diets. Behavioral data from this
study showed that the increased consumption of HCD was negatively correlated with the
expression of agonistic and anxiety-like behaviors in subordinate females. Results of this
study suggested that anxiety-like behaviors may be attenuated by the consumption of
HCD and supported the notion that humans and animals under chronic stress increase the
consumption of a preferred diet that is high in fat, calorie, and sugar as a coping strategy.

A High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Can Reduce the Expression of Anxiety
in Socially Housed Female Rhesus Macaques

By
Quynh-Chau M. Ha
Adviser
Patricia Whitten


A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Emory College
of Emory University in partial fulfillment
of the requirements of the degree of
Bachelor of Sciences with Highest Honors
Department of Anthropology
2009

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter Page

1. OBJECTIVE.................................................................. 1

2. BACKGROUND............................................................... 5


A Definition of Obesity............................................... 5
Health Risks Associated with Obesity..................... ...... 6
Epidemiology of Obesity............................................. 9
Etiology of Obesity.................................................. 11

3. INTRODUCTION............................................................ 23

4. METHODS................................................................... 33

Subjects and Housing............................................... 33
Feeding Apparatus and Data Collection........................ 34
Experimental Design......................................... ........ 35
Behavior and Emotional Reactivity............................... 36
Data Analysis.......................................................... 38

5. RESULTS.................................................................... 39
Total calories consumed during LCD only and
Choice (LCD +HCD).................................................. 39
Diet intake of LCD in the absence and presence of HCD... 39
Anxiety-like behavior and diet..................................... 40
Social behaviors and diet........................................... 42

6. DISCUSSION................................................................ 43

7. CONCLUSION............................................................... 48


8. REFERENCES................................................................ 60

9. LIST OF ILLUSATIONS & TABLES


Figure


1) Automated Feeder..................................................... 49
2) Social Status and Diet Condition................................... 52
3) Anxiety-like Behavior and Diet Condition.................... .... 54
4) HCD Consumption During Choice Condition...................... 55
5) Frequency of Anxiety-like Behavior................................ 56
6) Agonistic Behavior & Diet Condition................... ............ 57
7) Frequency of Affiliative Behavior & Diet Condition............. 58
8) Duration of Affiliative Behavior & Diet Condition................ 59


Tables


1) Rhesus Monkey Ethogram............................................. 50
2) Social Status & Diurnal Feeding..................................... 51
3) Weight Change Data................................................... 51
4) Diurnal Consumption of LCD During Each Diet Condition...... 53
5)Diurnal Consumption of LCD versus HCD During Choice........ 53







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