Prevalence and distribution of Giardia intestinalis genotypes in black and gold howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in relation to interspecies overlap and inter-annual variability in northern Argentina 公开

Kuthyar,Sahana (Spring 2018)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/t435gc99f?locale=zh
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Abstract

Increasing anthropogenic activities in Argentina are forcing howler monkeys to live in ecological overlap with humans and domestic animals. This ecological overlap among species at the human-wildlife interface presents the high potential for zoonotic disease transmission. This study investigated the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis, a zoonotic parasite, in black and gold howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, across a gradient of inter-species overlap and terrestriality in northern Argentina. This study records the first genetic characterization of G. intestinalis in northern Argentina and examines the genotypic distribution and variation in A. caraya. Black and gold howler monkeys are sentinels of ecosystem health as they can advise on potential disease outbreaks in a variety of species. Thus, howler monkeys were sampled as a wildlife proxy for zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis as they interact in varying degrees with other species, including humans, dogs, and livestock. From June to August 2016 and July to August 2017, fresh fecal samples (N=182) were non-invasively collected from groups of howler monkeys, in remote, rural, and village sites, all which differed in their degrees of overlap with humans and domesticated animals and terrestriality. Molecular methods were used to identify the prevalence and genotypic variability of G. intestinalis in all howler monkey samples. Prevalence of G. intestinalis in howler monkeys in Northern Argentina varied from 31-93% across the three types of inter-species overlap over 2016 and 2017. Giardia infection was highest in 2017 compared to 2016 and 2011, and village sites had the lowest prevalence during all three years. Genotype B was found in all types of inter-species overlap across both 2016 and 2017. Since host-adapted genotypes (C, D, and E) were not found in Northern Argentina, the source of G. intestinalis in howler monkeys does not seem to be cows or dogs. Furthermore, since Giardia and genotype B were found in howler monkeys regardless of type of inter-species overlap, howlers are thought to be a reservoir for Giardia, and potentially, for the zoonotic genotype B.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………. 1-9

            1.1. Giardia and Giardiasis …………………………………………………… 1-2

1.2. Giardia intestinalis ……………………………………………………….. 2-4

            1.3. Potential for Zoonotic Transmission ……………………………………... 4-5

            1.4. Giardia in Non-Human Primates ………………………………………… 5-7 

1.5. Giardia in Argentina ………………………………………………………7

            1.6. Giardia in Alouatta caraya ………………………………………………. 7-9

 

2. Purpose and Hypotheses …………………………………………………………….. 9-11

3. Materials and Methods ……………………………………………………………… 11-15

            3.1. Study Site ………………………………………………………………… 11-12

            3.2. Sample Collection ………………………………………………………... 12-13

            3.3. Molecular Analysis ………………………………………………………. 13-14

            3.4. Statistical Analysis ……………………………………………………….. 14

            3.5. Sequencing Analysis ………………………………………………………14-15

 

4. Results ………………………………………………………………………………..15-17

4.1. Sample Size ………………………………………………………………. 15

            4.2. 2016 Samples …………………………………………………………….. 15-16

            4.3. 2017 Samples …………………………………………………………….. 16

4.4. Inter-annual variation …………………………………………………….. 16-17

4.5. Genotypic Analysis ………………………………………………………. 17

 

5. Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………17-24

6. References …………………………………………………………………………... 24-26

7. Tables ……………………………………………………………………………….. 27-33

            Table 1 ………………………………………………………………………… 27

            Table 2 ………………………………………………………………………… 28

            Table 3 ………………………………………………………………………… 29

            Table 4 ………………………………………………………………………… 30

            Table 5 ………………………………………………………………………… 31

            Table 6 ………………………………………………………………………… 32

            Table 7 ………………………………………………………………………… 33

 

8. Figures ……………………………………………………………………………... 34-38

            Figure 1 ………………………………………………………………………... 34

            Figure 2 ………………………………………………………………………... 35

            Figure 3 ………………………………………………………………………... 36

            Figure 4 ………………………………………………………………………... 37

            Figure 5 ………………………………………………………………………... 38

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