The Effects of Using Video Advance Organizers on Listening Performance and the Learning of Culture in the Elementary Foreign Language Classroom Open Access

Davidson, Kelly Frances (2009)

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Abstract


Abstract
The Effects of Using Video Advance Organizers on Listening Performance and the
Learning of Culture in the Elementary Foreign Language Classroom
By Kelly Frances Davidson
Given the emphasis on the use of technology in the classroom and the increase in
availability of technological resources, the question of how to best implement technology
in the communicative foreign language (FL) classroom is a focus of professional
discussions. Although the use of authentic materials has been established as an effective
teaching practice, questions remain on how to use these materials. Advance organizers
(AOs), or introductory devices that activate a learner's prior knowledge relating to the
context at hand, could be useful in preparing FL students to view video. Videos can aid
learners in developing listening performance and retention of cultural information,
providing multi-modal input to illustrate authentic communication. This study examined
a strategy for introducing French video in the elementary-level college classroom. An
equivalent time samples design was used to investigate the use of a thematically related
video clip taken from Francophone television to introduce a longer curriculum video.
Through the use of quizzes, questionnaires, and interviews, the study determined whether
or not the use of a video AO benefited students in listening performance and the retention
of cultural information. The study also investigated student perceptions regarding the use
of video AOs. Findings indicated that there were no statistically significant differences
for listening performance or for cultural learning for students who viewed the video AO
and those who did not. Analyses of student perceptions revealed that preferences for
either condition were linked to perceptions of increased interest and the helpfulness or
difficulty of the AOs, as well as possible cognitive overload.

Table of Contents





Table of Contents
Chapter I: Introduction.........................................................................................................1
Definition of Terms..................................................................................................2
Theoretical Framework............................................................................................3
Statement of the Problem.........................................................................................4
Purpose of the Study................................................................................................5
Chapter II: Review of Literature and Research Questions..................................................7
Review of Literature................................................................................................7
Chapter III: Methodology and Procedures.........................................................................34
Mixed Methodology...............................................................................................34

Overview.................................................................................................34
Methodological
Framework....................................................................35

Strategies for Inquiry..............................................................................37
Instruments.............................................................................................................38
Measurements........................................................................................................41
Consent Procedures and Confidentiality....................................................45
General Classroom Procedures..............................................................................45
Quantitative Data Analysis....................................................................................48
Tests of Research Questions......................................................................49
Qualitative Data Analysis......................................................................................49

Data Source.............................................................................................50


Open-ended Questions...............................................................50
Oral Interviews..........................................................................51






Reliability and Validity...........................................................................55
Triangulation.............................................................................56


Audit Trail.................................................................................56


Researcher Bias.........................................................................57
Chapter IV: Results............................................................................................................60

Quantitative Data Interpretation...........................................................................60


Preliminary Quantitative Analyses: Participants....................................60


Preliminary Quantitative Analyses: Pretests...........................................61


Preliminary Quantitative Analyses: Instruments....................................62


Tests of Research Questions...................................................................63
Question 1: Analyses for immediate testing of listening
performance for FiA videos...................................63



Question 2: Analyses for immediate testing of retention of
cultural knowledge for FiA videos.........................64
Questions 3 & 4: Student perceptions and preferences regarding
the use of a video AO on overall listening
performance and retention of cultural
information ...................................................65
Qualitative Data Interpretation..............................................................................71

Participant Perceptions Questionnaires...................................................71
Preference..................................................................................72
Connections...............................................................................74


Listening Performance Effects..................................................75







Cultural Learning Effects..........................................................79


Guiding Questions.....................................................................81


Technology Effects....................................................................84
Interviews................................................................................................86
Preference..................................................................................88


Listening Performance Effects..................................................88


Cultural Information Effects......................................................90


Guiding Questions Benefits.......................................................96


Benefits of Technology.............................................................98


Difficulties/Possible Improvements........................................102
Chapter V: Discussion and Conclusion...........................................................................109
Limitations...........................................................................................................109
Analysis of Results..............................................................................................112

Research questions 1 & 2......................................................................112
Research questions 3 & 4......................................................................116
Significance...........................................................................................128
References........................................................................................................................131
Appendix A: Background Questionnaire.........................................................................140
Appendix B: Pretest for Listening Performance Skills....................................................143
Appendix C: Pretest for Cultural Knowledge..................................................................146
Appendix D: Weekly Immediate FiA Test Items............................................................155
Appendix E: Participant Perceptions Questionnaire........................................................185
Appendix F: Participant Perceptions Interview Questions..............................................190





Appendix G: Informed Consent Form (Student Participants) ........................................191
Appendix H: Weekly Guiding Questions to the Television AO Clips............................194
Appendix I: Participant Perceptions Questionnaire Coding Definitions and Examples
Sheet............................................................................................................214
Appendix J: Interview Transcripts...................................................................................221
Appendix K: Interview Coding Definitions and Examples Sheet...................................248
Table 1: List of Targeted Videos and Counterbalanced Design......................................254
Table 2: Sample Student Characteristics by Class...........................................................255
Table 3: One-Way ANOVA Results for Listening Performance Pretest........................256
Table 4: One-Way ANOVA Results for Cultural Knowledge Pretest............................257
Table 5: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 19........................................................258
Table 6: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 22........................................................259
Table 7: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 23........................................................260
Table 8: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 24........................................................261
Table 9: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 25........................................................262
Table 10: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 26......................................................263
Table 11: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 27......................................................264
Table 12: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 28......................................................265
Table 13: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 29......................................................266
Table 14: Inter-item and Test Reliability, Lesson 30......................................................267
Table 15: Paired t Test Results for Immediate Quizzes--Listening Performance..........268
Table 16: Paired t Test Results for Immediate Quizzes--Retention of Cultural
Knowledge.......................................................................................................269





Figure 1: Sequential Explanatory (Quantitative Dominant) Design................................270

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