Human Rights, Epistemic Communities, and World Culture: The Diffusion of Legislation Against the Organ Trade Open Access

Amahazion, Fikresus (2015)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/sf268519v?locale=en
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Abstract

Over the past several decades, more than 100 countries have passed legislation banning commercial transplantation. What explains this rapid, global diffusion of commercial transplantation laws, and what are the key factors influencing legislation? This project explores these questions through an analysis based on global-level, internationally focused, social science theories. First, I utilize various sources and conduct interviews to present a historical review of the global organ trade and legislation. The chapter details the important influence and role of the global medical epistemic community and international conceptions of human rights, dignity, and sacrality. Second, I conduct quantitative analyses of factors influencing legislation. Utilizing logistic regression and survival analysis models, I explore the global trend toward legislation across 1965-2012. In brief, the global trend toward legislation, with over 100 countries passing legislation between 1965 and 2012, is largely explained by the world society institution of human rights, a state's integration into such a society, the proliferation of world cultural scripts, models, and institutions delegitimizing the organ trade, and the influential global medical epistemic community. Additionally, economic development also impacts legislation. Overall, the results suggest that legislation is impacted by global, cultural, and economic factors.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter One.......................................................................................................................1

Introduction

Chapter Two.....................................................................................................................10

Historical Review: From Inauspicious Beginnings to a Global Issue

Chapter Three..................................................................................................................70

Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses: Exploring Possible Factors Influencing Implementation of Legislation

Chapter Four..................................................................................................................105

Data and Methods

Chapter Five...................................................................................................................136

Results: Legislation Against the Organ Trade - The Key Role of Human Rights, Epistemic Communities, and World Culture

Chapter Six.....................................................................................................................180

Conclusion

Appendix 1.1...................................................................................................................192

Excerpt: United Arab Emirates - Federal Law No. (15) of 1993, Regulating the Transfer and Transplant of Human Organs, 21 August 1993

Appendix 1.2...................................................................................................................193

Excerpt: United States - National Organ Transplant Act, 19 October 1984

Appendix 1.3...................................................................................................................194

Excerpt: Montenegro - The Removal and Transplantation of Human Body Parts for the Purposes of Medical Treatment Act, no. 76/2009, 18 November 2009

References.......................................................................................................................195

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