Comprehensive Sex Education in East Indonesia: A Culturally Sensitive Approach to Encourage Healthy Relationships Among Teenagers; A Special Study Project Open Access

Bili, Sartiani (Spring 2023)

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Background: As of 2022, Indonesia's adolescent population is estimated to be approximately 44 million. This sizable demographic represents both an opportunity to grow human resources and a challenge to address teenage issues, particularly those concerning sexuality. Notably, in the eastern region of Indonesia, discussing sexual matters among adolescents is typically taboo and seldom broached. Furthermore, numerous health concerns affect the adolescent population, including loneliness, anxiety, bullying, physical violence, lack of parental and peer support, alcohol use, self-harm, early pregnancy, and early marriage. Implementing a culturally sensitive and comprehensive approach to sexual education for adolescents offers a potential solution to mitigate these problems by fostering healthy relationships.

Purpose: This program aims to establish sexual guidelines for young individuals, "Teenager Survival Guidelines." The purpose is to promote awareness among teenagers regarding their sexual conduct and rights and encourage respect for others. Moreover, this guidebook can facilitate communication and foster discussions about sexuality in adolescents among teenagers, parents, and educators alike.

Methods: This book was developed based on a literature review of studies in Indonesia, input from schoolteachers working in a remote area, experiences of the author, and the Technical Guidance on Sexual Education by UNFPA, 2018. This bilingual 45-page book, "Teenager Survival Guide," had been distributed to ten pre-publication reviewers: teachers, health workers, parent, and adolescents, representing different cultures and backgrounds in Eastern Indonesia, to solicit in-depth discussion and verbal input.

Results: All (100%) of the pre-publication reviewers indicated that it is highly pertinent to the requirements of contemporary youth. Specific recommendations were made concerning the inclusion of additional content. Additionally, this publication underwent multiple revisions, and the feedback informed its ultimate form of all stakeholders and is now primed for dissemination.

Discussion: The optimization of comprehensive sexual education in Indonesia is currently an ongoing effort. Collaboration among various stakeholders, including parents, religious leaders, educators, and traditional authorities, is crucial to address the pressing need for sexual education. We expect that disseminating this book will contribute to advancing sex education for Indonesian adolescents and ultimately foster a more promising outlook for their future.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction and Background 1

Introduction and Significance 1

Problem Statement 5

Purpose Statement 6

Definition of the Key Terms 9

Abbreviations 9

Chapter 2: Review of Literature 11

Importance Of Sex and Relationship Education (SRE) 11

Family and School-Based Sex Education 12

Individual Level of Sex Education 13

Interpersonal Level for Sex Education 14

Societal Level for Sex Education 16

Chapter 3: Methodology 19

Need Assessment 19

Guideline Development 20

IRB Approval 21

Pilot Testing 21

Chapter 4: Deliverable 24

The Guidelines 24

Pilot Study Result 25

Chapter 5: Discussion 27

Strength and Limitation 27

Recommendation 28

Conclusion 31

Appendix 38

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