Factors Affecting Enteric Adenovirus Infection Dynamics in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Gombe National Park, Tanzania: Implications for Global Health and Biodiversity Conservation Open Access

Cross, Kristen Elizabeth (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/rn3012238?locale=en
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Abstract

Abstract

Adenoviruses have been isolated from human tissues since the early 1960s and therefore are one of the most well studied viruses known today. However, our understanding of these viruses in other species remains largely unknown. Recently, adenoviruses were detected at high prevalence in wild non-human primate populations, raising concerns of the potential of zoonotic transmission to affect human health and wildlife conservation. Although in most cases these simian adenoviruses were shed from the gastro-intestinal tracts of individuals demonstrating no clinical symptoms, they have been implicated in fatal respiratory outbreaks, as well as gastroenteritis, in wild chimpanzees within Tai National Park in Cote d'Ivoire. To improve our understanding of this interplay, the current study examined factors that may affect the patterns of adenovirus infection in two chimpanzee communities residing in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. From March 2010 to March 2011, 251 samples were collected from 62 individually recognized chimpanzees from the Kasakela and Mitumba communities. Aliquots of these samples were preserved and later screened using appropriate preservatives and protocols for adenoviruses, SIV, and gastrointestinal viruses. In addition to patterns of co-infection with gastrointestinal parasites and SIV, chimpanzee community was also considered as a factor that may affect adenovirus infection dynamics since the chimpanzee communities examined differed in their patterns of overlap with people and domestic animals. None of the factors examined demonstrated significant associations with adenovirus shedding. Future studies should use sequencing technologies to better understand adenovirus transmission dynamics within the Greater Gombe Ecosystem.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Introduction 1-9

Zoonoses and Emerging Infectious Diseases 1-2

Background of Gombe National Park and the Chimps 2-5

Background about Adenovirus 5-6

Background about SIV Infection in Gombe 6-7

Gastro-intestinal parasites and immune response 7-8

Introduction of hypothesis and the experiment 8-9

Materials and Methods 9-15

Sample Collection 9-10

Molecular Methodologies 10-13

Data/Statistical Analyses 13-15

Results15-21

Discussion 22-27

Appendix I 28

References Cited 29-31

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