Teaching Grammar Through Cultural Presentations: Investigating the Effects of a Guided Inductive and a Deductive Approach on the Learning of Grammar and Culture in Intermediate-Level College French Open Access

Vogel, Severine Paulette (2010)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/rn3011852?locale=en
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Abstract


This study was designed to integrate culture into the teaching of grammar in an
intermediate-level French course. It focused on eight grammatical structures taught via
eight cultural topics. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a guided
inductive or a deductive instructional approach most effectively promoted the learning of
the targeted forms as well as grammatical accuracy in writing tasks. The study also
examined whether a guided inductive or a deductive approach that presented grammar in
a cultural context would affect the retention of culture. Through a within-subjects design,
this study compared the effects of a guided inductive approach (Adair-Hauck, Donato &
Cumo-Johanssen, 2005; Herron & Tomasello, 1992) and a traditional deductive approach
on students' short and long-term learning of grammatical structures and retention of
cultural information. A secondary goal was to investigate students' preferences for each
instructional approach, as well as their opinions regarding the integration of culture into
grammar lessons.
The effects of the approaches on students' grammar performances were measured
through a grammar pretest, immediate post-treatment tests, writing tasks, and a delayed
posttest. Students' retention of culture was assessed via immediate post-treatment tests
and a pretest/posttest comparison. Relationships between instructional preferences and
performances were examined. The participants were 25 students enrolled in a third-
semester French course. Findings indicated a significantly greater effect of the guided
inductive approach on students' immediate grammar performances. Long-term analyses
showed a significant improvement of grammar knowledge over time in both treatment
conditions. Analyses of the culture pre/posttest indicated a significant improvement in
cultural knowledge over time, but no interaction effect. A majority of students stated a
preference for the deductive approach. No significant relationship between students'
preference and performances were found. A majority of students enjoyed learning
grammar in a cultural context, although several expressed feelings of cognitive overload.
The results of this study suggested that culture could be integrated into the study of
grammar. They indicated that a collaborative approach to constructing rule explanations
could benefit intermediate-level students' learning of grammar. Active involvement and
hypothesis testing can lead to increased grammar performance in a foreign language
classroom.

Table of Contents



TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................1

Pedagogical trends in foreign language teaching.................................................................2
Proficiency-oriented instruction...........................................................................................5
Standards for foreign language learning ..............................................................................8
Theoretical framework ......................................................................................................10
Statement of the problem ..................................................................................................11
Purpose of the study ..........................................................................................................13
Research questions ............................................................................................................14
Definition of terms ............................................................................................................15
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................................................17
The role of grammar instruction ........................................................................................17
Inductive vs. deductive teaching approaches ....................................................................22
The audio-lingual inductive approach ...................................................................22
Empirical studies ...................................................................................................24
Grammar instruction at the intermediate-level .................................................................34
Language skills development and culture in FL instruction .............................................35
Students' opinions on foreign language learning ..............................................................46
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY .................................................................................49
Mixed methods research design.........................................................................................49
Rational ..................................................................................................................50
Implementation and priority ..................................................................................50
Participants and setting ......................................................................................................51

Consent procedures and confidentiality.................................................................52
Classroom procedures........................................................................................................53
Target structures and cultural themes ................................................................................54
Research design .................................................................................................................55
Treatment procedures.........................................................................................................56
Instruments ........................................................................................................................58
Background questionnaire .....................................................................................58
Grammar pretest and posttest.................................................................................58
Culture pretest and posttest....................................................................................59
Immediate grammar posttests ................................................................................59
Immediate culture posttests....................................................................................60
Delayed writing tasks.............................................................................................61
Preference and perception questionnaire ...............................................................61
Quantitative Data Analyses ...............................................................................................61
Research question 1 ...............................................................................................61
Research question 2 ...............................................................................................62
Research question 3 ...............................................................................................62
Research question 4 ...............................................................................................63
Research question 5 ...............................................................................................63
Research question 6 &7 .........................................................................................63
Research question 8 ...............................................................................................64
Qualitative Data Analysis Phase .......................................................................................64
Data sources ..........................................................................................................64

Data analysis ..........................................................................................................65
Reliability and validity ..........................................................................................66
Researcher bias .....................................................................................................66
CHAPTER 5: RESULTS ................................................................................................69
Quantitative Data Interpretation ........................................................................................69
Preliminary analyses: pretests differences .............................................................69
Preliminary analyses: instruments .........................................................................69
Analyses of research questions ..............................................................................72
Question 1 ..............................................................................................................72
Question 2 ..............................................................................................................72
Question 3 ..............................................................................................................74
Question 4 ..............................................................................................................74
Question 5 ..............................................................................................................75
Question 6 ..............................................................................................................76
Question 7 ..............................................................................................................76
Question 8 ..............................................................................................................78
Qualitative Data interpretation...........................................................................................79
Open-ended responses interpretation.....................................................................79
Question 6: ............................................................................................................80
Preference of instructional approach .........................................................80
Opinions of the deductive approach ..........................................................82
Opinions of the guided inductive approach ...............................................83
Question 7: ............................................................................................................85

Preference .................................................................................................85
Grammar learning effects ..........................................................................87
Culture retention effects.............................................................................90
Interviews .................................................................................................................92
Perceptions of instruction in this study..............................................................93
Preference of instructional approach .................................................................99
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ..................................................105
Limitations .......................................................................................................................105
Analyses of results ...........................................................................................................109
Questions 1, 2 & 3 ...............................................................................................109
Questions 4 & 5 ...................................................................................................118
Questions 6, 7 & 8 ...............................................................................................121
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................129
REFERENCES...............................................................................................................131
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................142
Appendix A: Background questionnaire..........................................................................142
Appendix B: Guided inductive and deductive lessons plans ...........................................143
Appendix C: Grammar pre/posttest .................................................................................177
Appendix D: Culture pre/posttest ....................................................................................180
Appendix E: Immediate grammar posttests.....................................................................186
Appendix F: Immediate culture posttests ........................................................................190
Appendix G: Delayed writing tasks.................................................................................193
Appendix H: Preference and perception questionnaire ...................................................194

Appendix I: Interview guide ............................................................................................196
Appendix J: Interview transcripts ....................................................................................197
Appendix K: First and second level codes.......................................................................231
TABLES..........................................................................................................................233
Table 1: Student characteristics by course section ..........................................................233
Table 2: Grammatical structures and associated cultural topics......................................234
Table 3: Equivalent times sample design.........................................................................235
Table 4: Grammar and culture pretest means and standard deviations ...........................236
Table 5: Grammar pretest and posttest items means and standard deviations.................237
Table 6: Culture pretest and posttest items means and standard deviations ....................238
Table 7: Immediate grammar tests reliability and item difficulty ..................................239
Table 8: Immediate culture tests item difficulty ..............................................................240
Table 9: Paired t test results for the immediate grammar tests ........................................241
Table 10: Paired t test results for the writing tasks ( n = 14)............................................242
Table 11: Paired t test results for the writing tasks ( n = 22)............................................243
Table 12: Correlations between performance on immediate grammar tests and writing
tasks..................................................................................................................................244
Table 13: Grammar pretest and posttest means and standard deviations ........................245
Table 14: ANOVA results grammar ................................................................................246
Table 15: Paired t test results for the immediate culture tests .........................................247
Table 16: Culture pretest and posttest means and standard deviations............................248
Table 17: ANOVA results culture ...................................................................................249

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