Concentrations of pesticide residues in baby foods: understanding a common pathway of exposure for infants Público

D'Souza, Priya Esilda (2011)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/rj4304596?locale=es
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Abstract

Background: The dietary pathway is the primary route of exposure to pesticides in the general population. An infant's diet is relatively restricted to breast milk or formula and baby food. Although baby food is an important part of an infant's diet, no studies have investigated pesticide residues in this commodity.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pesticide residues in baby foods to determine if pesticide residues were present and which brands and commodities contained the most residues.

Methods: A newly developed GC-MS/MS multi-residue method was used to evaluate a market basket survey of baby foods. The most commonly consumed baby food commodities and brands were included in this evaluation. Five brands of three different types of fruit baby foods were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were employed to determine the distribution of pesticide residues in baby foods. Fisher's Exact Tests of independence were undertaken to determine differences in the number of residues found in each product.

Results: The majority of the pesticides tested were not detected in any baby food samples. However, detectable levels of two isomers of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dicofol, fenobucarb, chlorpyrifos, and resmethrin were found in some samples. Among samples containing detectable residue levels, OC residues were found 23 times, carbamate residues 6 times, OP residues 5 times, and pyrethroid residues twice. Statistically significant differences were seen between some groups. Greater levels were seen in the conventional samples when compared to organic samples, apple samples when compared to pear samples, banana samples when compared to pear samples, Beech-Nut samples when compared to Gerber Organic samples, and Earth's Best samples when compared to Gerber Organic samples.

Conclusions: This study was the first to assess pesticide residues in baby foods in order to better understand a common pathway of exposure for infants. Characterizing dietary pesticide exposures for infants and children is an essential component of pesticide risk assessment. Several reports have demonstrated the significant contribution of dietary intake to overall pesticide exposure in children and highlighted the critical need to quantify the health risks associated with chronic low-level exposures to those pesticides.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................................................................................1


Effects on Insects and Humans............................................................................................................................................................................................2


METHODS........................................................................................................................................................................................................................9


Selection of baby foods......................................................................................................................................................................................................9


Sample Preparation...........................................................................................................................................................................................................11


Analysis..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................12


Statistical Evaluation.........................................................................................................................................................................................................13


RESULTS.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14


DISCUSSION....................................................................................................................................................................................................................19


Study Limitations..............................................................................................................................................................................................................22


CONCLUSION....................................................................................................................................................................................................................23


TABLES AND FIGURES........................................................................................................................................................................................................24


Table I. Insecticides measured in this study are listed along with their class, toxicity classification, and mode of toxicity.....................................................................24


Table I (continued). WHO and EPA toxicity classification scales are listed....................................................................................................................................25


Table II. Mass spectral parameters for analysis of pesticides in baby foods..................................................................................................................................26


Table III. Limits of detection, frequencies of detection, and mean, median, and maximum concentrations for each analyte are listed......................................................27


Table IV. Relative recoveries and standard deviations for each analyte are listed..........................................................................................................................28


Table V. Pesticide residue distribution stratified by growing convention.......................................................................................................................................29


Table VI. Pesticide residue distribution stratified by commodity type...........................................................................................................................................30


Table VII. Pesticide residue distribution stratified by brand........................................................................................................................................................31


Table VIII. P-values for Fisher's Exact Tests for independence by pesticide for each comparison group.............................................................................................32


Figure I. Potential sites of action of classes of insecticides on the axon and terminal portions of the nerve........................................................................................33


Figure II. The generic structure of the anticholinesterase-class organophosphorus insecticides is shown............................................................................................33


Figure III. The generic structure of the anticholinesterase-class carbamate insecticides is shown.....................................................................................................34


Figure IV. The basic structure of permethrin, a representative and most commonly used pyrethroid insecticide is shown.......................................................................34


Figure V. The structure of p,p-DDT, a common organochlorine insecticide is shown........................................................................................................................35


Figure VI. Potential sites of action of DDT..............................................................................................................................................................................35


Figure VII. Proposed sites of action of cyclodiene-type organochlorine insecticides in chloride ion transport through inhibition of the GABA receptor channel as well as inhibition of calcium-magnesium ATPase..........36


WORKS CITED...................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

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