Analytical Methods for Pesticides in Food and ResidentialDust Open Access

Hunter, Ronald (2009)

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Abstract Analytical Methods for Pesticides in Food and Residential Dust By Ronald E. Hunter, Jr. Due to widespread use of agrochemicals, such as organophosphorus (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides, Americans are exposed to insecticides via food and dust ingestion daily. Upon the extraction of house dust and commonly consumed foods, researchers have demonstrated the prevalence of OP and pyrethroid pesticides in these matrices. Despite advancements in pesticide residue analysis of food and residential dust, there is still a need for the further development of economical, high-throughput, rapid, multi-residue methods. Via these methods, researchers can investigate insecticidal dietary exposure of small populations by introducing innovative sample compositing techniques, such as categorizing and compositing food samples by food type ( e.g. fruit and above- or below- ground vegetables). Consequently, we recognized that regularly consumed foods and house dust contain measurable quantities of OP and pyrethroid pesticides, developed analytical methods for quantifying amounts of these pesticide residues in food and residential dust, and applied methodologies to relative samples collected from a population of 12 in a pilot study endeavoring to assess persons' total pesticide exposure to three OP and four pyrethroid pesticides. This is important because there is (1) a shortage of multi-residue methods for food and house dust, (2) an increased consumption of imported food in the U.S., (3) a harmful effect of insecticides at all stages of life, and (4) a need to obtain limits of detection ≤ those used in Food and Drug Administration surveillance programs because researchers are observing pesticide metabolites in part per trillion levels in urine.

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ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ACRONYMS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND A Short History of Pesticide Use in the U.S 2 Pesticide Regulation in the U.S 7 Types of Pesticide and Use 14 General Pesticide Biomarker Information 21 Pesticide Exposure from Beverages, Food, Soil, and Residential Dust 24 Reasons to Care about Exposure 30 Analytical Chemistry of Pesticide Monitoring of Food 34 References 49 CHAPTER 2: METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-RESIDUE PESTICIDE EXTRACTION FROM FOOD Introduction 56 Materials and Methods 60 Results 66 Discussion 70 References 75 Appendix 2A: Methodologies Assessed for Pesticide Residue Analysis 78 Appendix 2B: Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticides 110 CHAPTER 3: ORGANOPHOSPHORUS AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN COMPOSITE DIET SAMPLES FROM ATLANTA, USA ADULTS Introduction 125 Materials and Methods 127 Results and Discussion 134 References 149 CHAPTER 4: METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-RESIDUE PESTICIDE EXTRACTION FROM RESIDENTIAL DUST Introduction 153 Materials and Methods 158 Results 164 Discussion 167 References 170 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT Conclusions 174 Future Development 178

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