Impact of urbanization on the burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases in urban communities in Africa and South Asia 公开

Schroeder, Morgan (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/qn59q458n?locale=zh
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Abstract

Urban growth in the developing world is occurring at an unprecedented rate and magnitude; consequently many cities are stretched beyond their capacity to provide basic services to their citizens. People are drawn from rural settings to cities seeking opportunities, greater access to resources, and hope for a better future, but realization of these dreams is achieved by very few.. Of the 3.3 billion people living in urban areas worldwide, more than one billion people live in slums, including 56% of South Asians and 70% of sub-Saharan Africans. The nature of informal settlements exposes the urban poor to a profound number of disease factors for disease, but data are limited on the extent of the problem among urban slum populations, which hinders evidence-based action and interventions. This review examines the current and projected burdens of infectious and non-communicable disease in urban slums attributable to urbanization-related factors such as poor infrastructure, overcrowding, and lifestyle changes in African and South Asian countries, and identifies gaps and limitations of current knowledge about their prevalence and risk factors. Research in the future should include the collection of standardized, disaggregated urban health data to inform evidence-based action, engagement of the community and formation of multi-sectoral partnerships, and the enactment of innovative policies and programs that challenge underlying social norms that perpetuate the existence of urban slums, ultimately transforming the impact of urbanization from negative to positive.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction............................................................................. 1

1.1 Background and significance................................................................... 2

1.2 Statement of the problem...................................................................... 6

1.3 Statement of purpose........................................................................... 7

1.4 Research questions.............................................................................. 8

Chapter 2: Methods................................................................................. 8

Chapter 3: Results .................................................................................. 11

3.1 Burden of infectious diseases in African urban centers................................ 12

3.2 Burden of non-communicable diseases in African urban centers ................... 24

3.3 Burden of infectious diseases in South Asian urban centers......................... 30

3.4 Burden of non-communicable disease in South Asian urban centers .............. 35

Chapter 4: Discussion, Recommendations & Conclusions.................................. 38

4.1 Discussion.......................................................................................... 38

4.2 Recommendations................................................................................ 41

4.3 Conclusions........................................................................................ 46

References............................................................................................ 48

Appendix A ........................................................................................... 64

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