Predicting Body Burden of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Children Aged 15 Months to 5 Years Using Household Dust and Handwipe Levels and Selected Demographic Variables Open Access

Lee, Grace E (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/qn59q441g?locale=en
Published

Abstract

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that are ubiquitous in the environment and in human biological samples. Despite bans on two of the three major commercial mixtures of PBDEs, the United States has the highest serum concentrations in the world due to historically high use. PBDEs are known endocrine modulators and have been linked to numerous neurodevelopmental and behavioral disabilities. Studies have suggested that children may be particularly sensitive to PBDE exposures. Simultaneously, they may have serum concentrations up to 10-fold higher than adults. Few studies have looked at individual child serum levels or attempted to correlate them with environmental matrices.


The aim of this study was to determine child serum, handwipe and household dust levels of PBDEs for a group of demographically diverse children. Blood samples were obtained from 81 children enrolled at the Children's Hospital of Atlanta (CHOA) while undergoing a routine surgery. At a later date, a subset of participants had household dust (n=15) and handwipes (n=13) collected.


Serum, dust, and handwipes were extracted and the concentrations of six congeners (BDE-47, -85, -99, -100, -153, -154) and ΣPBDE determined in-house by GC/MSD analysis. BDE-47 and -99 were dominant congeners in all three matrices. In serum, significant associations were found between sex and BDE-47 and ΣPBDE, race and BDE-100, breastfeeding history and BDE-47, and BMI and BDE-153. Handwipe and serum were correlated for BDE-47 and ΣPBDE, suggesting that handwipes may be a good personal exposure measure for the Penta DBE mixture.


To date, only one other study has investigated child serum, child handwipes, and household dust in the same individuals for PBDEs. Additionally, this is one of the largest and most diverse groups studied in this age demographic for PBDE exposures.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION.. 1
A. Background. 1
B. Health Effects. 2

Endocrine Modulation. 3
Neurotoxic Effects. 4
C. Human Exposure to PBDE. 5
Global Exposure Trends. 5
Child Serum PBDE.. 6
Exposure Routes and Potential Measurement Methods. 7
D. Aims and Hypotheses. 9
2. METHODS AND MATERIALS.. 10
A. Study Population and Enrollment. 10
B. Chemicals and Materials. 11
C. Blood Samples. 12

Blood Sample Collection. 12
Serum PBDE Extraction and Quantification. 12
D. Household Dust Samples. 14
Dust Sample Collection. 14
Dust PBDE Extraction. 14
E. Child Handwipe Samples. 15
Handwipe Collection. 15
Handwipe Extraction. 15
F. Dust and Handwipe PBDE Quantification.. 16
G. Data Analysis. 16
3. RESULTS.. 17
A. Demographic Data. 17
B. Serum PBDE Distributions. 18
C. Serum PBDE Associations. 21

Statistical Analysis. 21
Age and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 21
Sex and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 21
Race and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 22
Insurance Status and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 22
Breastfeeding and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 22
BMI and Serum PBDE Concentrations. 23
D. Dust PBDE Distributions. 23
E. Handwipe PBDE Distributions. 25
F. Serum, Dust, Handwipe Correlations. 26
4. DISCUSSION.. 27
A. Serum PBDE Study Design.. 27
B. Serum PBDE Distribution and Associations. 28
C. Dust and Handwipe PBDE Study. 32
D. Limitations. 34
E. Future Studies. 35
F. Conclusions. 36
5. REFERENCES.. 36
6. NON-PRINT SOURCES.. 39
7. TABLES & FIGURES.. 40
8. APPENDICES.. 46
A. Standard Operating Procedure for BEAT Dust Collection.. 46
B. PBDE GC/MSD Instrument Method Details. 56

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
School
Department
Degree
Submission
Language
  • English
Research field
Keyword
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files