From Slums to Skylines: The Effects of Mumbai Slum Rehabilitation on Economic Inclusion Open Access

Deshpande, Anand Anil (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/q811kk017?locale=en
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Abstract

As India's market emerges in the global economy, cities such as Mumbai are attempting to develop into "world class" metropolises. Major infrastructure projects include the redevelopment of Mumbai's slums areas through a formal process called slum rehabilitation. The scheme attempts to resettle slum dwellers in high rise housing in situ, providing a heightened standard of living, while giving developers the ability to repurpose the remaining land into areas of high economic activity. This process does not take into account the cornucopia of economic activities within the slums, nor does it accommodate the cultures and lifestyles of slum dwellers, often leading to further marginalization. Many of the slum dwellers also lack protectioin under the slum rehabilitation legislation, excluding them from the rehabilitation process.

The problems surrounding slums largely come from India's ineffective national development strategy which leaves the rural areas, containing 70% of the population, and the agricultural sector, containing 50% of the labor, underserved in the areas of healthcare, education and employment. This leads to the perpetuation of both the informal economy and immigration to the slums of India's cities. It also has created a dichotomy of Two Indias-- the Developing India of the urban, educated members of the formal economy and the Underdeveloped India of the rural and slum-dwelling, less-educated generally belonging to the informal economy. Slum rehab is simply a bandage solution for a complex problem.

While the indirect effects of rehabilitation on project residents paired with slum dwellers' efforts to maintain their livelihoods seem to make an overall positive impact on slum dwellers' economic inclusion in the formal, developing economy of Mumbai, this is only true for those who are legally included in the process. The problems created by the Two India dichotomy require a shift in development efforts toward a policy of comprehensive problem solving that understands the complex and interconnected nature of these problems, pushes for cooperative socio-economic sustainable development and no longer functions in a top-down manner, catering to the diversity of lifestyles which exist in India and Mumbai.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1......................Preface

4......................Definitions

6......................Chapter I: Introduction

13....................Chapter II: Development of India

28....................Chapter III: Reasons for Slums

34....................Chapter IV: Development of Mumbai

41....................Chapter V: Process of Slum Rehabilitation

47....................Chapter VI: Developmental Implications

55....................Chapter VII: Economic Citizenship

66....................Chapter VIII: Upward Mobility

83....................Chapter IX: Conclusions

85....................Afterward

87....................Bibliography

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