The concentration of malondialdehyde in exhaled breath is influenced by air pollution exposure during physical activity in adolescents 公开

Thaker, Kaytna Upendra (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/pz50gw29w?locale=zh
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Abstract

Background: The health effects of air pollution have long been a concern, and numerous studies have found associations between air pollution exposure and adverse health effects. One of the key mechanisms through which air pollutants exert toxicity is believed to be oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a relatively stable common lipid peroxidation product and has been quantified in a variety of biological matrices, including exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Objectives: To determine the presence of an association between increased levels of MDA in EBC and increased concentrations of measured air pollutants within this study population of adolescents. Methods: Student athletes between the ages of 14 and 18 were recruited from sports practices at two metro-Atlanta high schools. Prior to, and immediately following sports team practices, samples of EBC were collected from each subject. Air quality measurements were recorded for the duration of team practices. MDA concentrations were measured in EBC using High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectrometry following derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Single pollutant models using linear regression were used to assess associations between percent change in MDA and pollutants of interest. Results: A non-significant decrease in MDA levels was observed when comparing pre and post-practice MDA concentration among all subject, however, a significant difference was observed in post-practice MDA levels between urban and suburban schools. A significant difference in the mean percent change in MDA levels among subjects participating in indoor and outdoor sports. A statistically significant association was found between particle number count and percent change in MDA levels and a borderline significant association was found between ozone and percent change in MDA levels. Controlling for gender, a statistically significant association was found between ozone and particle number count and percent change in MDA level. Discussion: MDA levels increased during sports team practices. Independent of exposure, outdoor sports are associated with increased percent change in MDA levels when compared to indoor sports. Although a significant difference was observed in the mean post-practice MDA concentration among urban and suburban schools, there was no significant difference in the overall percent change in MDA levels between the two schools.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION.. 1

Background. 1

Children and Air Pollution. 1

Health Effects of Air Pollution. 3

Aims 4

METHODS. 5

Study Population and Enrollment 5

EBC Sample Collection. 6

MDA Standard Solution Preparation. 6

EBC Sample Preparation and Derivitization. 6

EBC Sample Quantification. 7

Analytical Method Performance 8

Data Analysis 8

RESULTS. 8

Summary statistics 8

Differences in pre vs. post-practice MDA levels between subjects from urban and suburban schools 9

Differences in mean MDA levels between subjects from urban and suburban schools 10

Differences in pre vs. post-practice MDA levels between subjects participating in indoor and outdoor sports 10

Differences in mean MDA levels between subjects participating in indoor and outdoor sports 11

Pollutants 12

Associations between air pollutants and percent change in MDA levels 13

DISCUSSION.. 14

Limitations 16

CONCLUSIONS. 17

FIGURES AND TABLES. 23

Table 1: Study subject characteristics. 23

Table 2: Mean pre and post-practice MDA concentrations (standard deviation) and MDA % change 23

Table 3: Mean pre and post-practice MDA concentrations (standard deviation) and MDA % change 23

Table 4: Mean pollutant concentrations (standard deviation) at urban and suburban schools and indoor and outdoor sports. 23

Table 5: Single pollutant linear regression models examining the relationship between ozone, black carbon, and particle number count and percent change in MDA levels. 24

Table 6: Single pollutant linear regression models including sex as additional predictors of percent change in MDA level controlling for sex and age. 24

Figure 1: Differences in mean MDA levels between subjects from urban and suburban schools 25

Figure 2: Differences in mean MDA levels between subjects participating in indoor and outdoor sports 25

Appendix A: Full LC-MS Analytical Method. 26

Appendix B: MDA Calibration Curve. 40

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