Domūs and Insulae in the City of Rome: Living Spaces, Design, and Development translation missing: zh.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Mundy, Joanna (Fall 2018)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/p2676w43m?locale=zh
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Abstract

Excavations throughout the city of Rome over the last century now allow us to gather a much more complete image of urban ancient Roman housing. This study uses the decorations and organization of architecturally organized domestic spaces, which have been archaeologically recovered within the limits of the Aurelian walls between the first and fifth centuries CE, to elucidate how domestic spaces played a role in Roman life and society in this period. It examines how residences contributed to the social interactions and political status of households both on an interior scale, examining the individual spaces within Roman houses as settings for social interaction, and on an exterior scale, seeing how the placement of a household within the urban city plan and within the social networks in the city influenced the public development of Rome. First on the interior scale of domestic space, it examines the individual rooms of Roman houses through an architectural analysis of lines-of-sight, decoration, and architectural arrangement of rooms. Then on an exterior scale, using network analysis and GIS mapping, it examines how the placement of a household within the topography of the city was influenced by its position within social networks.

The dataset consists of ninety-one domūs or possible domūs and twenty-eight insulae with possible multi-family residences and provides a foundation for the examination of three key questions. First, Romans consciously chose the decoration and design of their spaces. How do their choices of decorative program, lines-of-sight, and organization reveal the relative degree of accessibility that would have been expected in different types of domestic spaces? Second, it examines the decorative program of particular spaces to uncover decorative themes found in common in specific types of spaces, such as open-air courtyards or interior large decorative rooms. These themes indicate possible expectations for the use of these spaces. Finally, using network analysis and GIS, it asks if social networks among households in the fourth century, specifically relationships based on political standing, cultic participation, or familial ties, influenced the development of the topographical neighborhoods of the city.

This study concludes that Romans consciously created spaces for flexible use to accommodate a maximum variety of social functions, both public and private, in the compact footprints available in the urban center of the city. Romans used key decorative themes to maximize the appearance of their status, wealth, and education, and tailored these themes to different types of rooms. While their social ties did not have a clear impact on the locations of domestic buildings in the city, their social status and wealth impacted the development of the urban plan and changed the shapes of the hills as they were expanded and built into by wealthy patrons.

Table of Contents

Index: Domūs and Insulae in the City of Rome: Living Spaces, Design, and Development

Chapter 1 – Introduction and Historiography of the Domus................................................... 1

   Introduction to Historiography:.......................................................................................... 1

   Ancient Sources:................................................................................................................ 5

   Early Modern Scholarship:................................................................................................. 11

   The Nineteenth Century and Unification:........................................................................... 21

   Theories in the Twentieth Century:.................................................................................... 26

   The Influence of Early Rome:............................................................................................. 34

   Spatial Theories after World War II:................................................................................... 38

   The Study of Roman Housing in the Later Twentieth Century:............................................ 41

   Network Analysis and Technology:..................................................................................... 47

   Introduction to the Following Chapters and Analysis:........................................................ 49

Chapter 2 – Space in Roman Houses - Open Access Spaces.................................................... 52

   Introduction:..................................................................................................................... 52

   Review of visual analysis methodologies:........................................................................... 54

   Entry Spaces: Fauces, Vestibulum:..................................................................................... 59

   Covered or Partially Covered Courtyards: Atrium:.............................................................. 70

   Open-sided or open-fronted rooms: Ala, Tablinum:........................................................... 78

   Peristyles and porticoed courtyards:................................................................................... 84

   Other courtyards:.............................................................................................................. 123

   Conclusions – Openly Accessible Spaces:........................................................................... 128

Chapter 3 – Controlled Space in Roman Houses.................................................................... 133

   Introduction:..................................................................................................................... 133

   Small closed rooms: Cubicula, Storage, Culina, Latrines:.................................................... 134

      Cellae and service spaces:.......................................................................................................... 135

      Cubicula and small decorative rooms:....................................................................................... 142

      Small multifunctional cellae or coenacula:................................................................................ 152

   Dining or presentation rooms:............................................................................................ 157

      The triclinium:........................................................................................................................... 157

      The oecus and exedra:................................................................................................................ 160

      Large central rooms with paired side rooms:............................................................................. 166

      Large decorative rooms not in sets:........................................................................................... 179

      Unaligned decorative rooms:..................................................................................................... 186

      Conclusions:............................................................................................................................... 197

   Halls, Aulae:...................................................................................................................... 198

      Poly-lobed rooms:...................................................................................................................... 199

      Large one-apsed halls:................................................................................................................ 203

      Uniquely apsed rooms:............................................................................................................... 209

      Conclusions:............................................................................................................................... 212

   Baths:................................................................................................................................ 213

      Possibly partially or completely public:..................................................................................... 214

      Late Antique domestic bath:...................................................................................................... 219

      Heated rooms:............................................................................................................................. 223

   Nymphaea and Grottos:...................................................................................................... 226

      Courtyard fountains and nymphaea:.......................................................................................... 227

      Underground examples of nymphaea:........................................................................................ 229

      Nymphaea placed in apses:........................................................................................................ 231

       Water sources:............................................................................................................................ 232

       Decoration:................................................................................................................................ 233

       Conclusions:.............................................................................................................................. 234

     Conclusions – Controlled Access Spaces:.................................................................................. 235

Chapter 3 Part 2 – Inconclusive Access Spaces:...................................................................... 238

   Sacred spaces:.................................................................................................................... 238

   Stairways:.......................................................................................................................... 242

   Upper floors:..................................................................................................................... 247

       Conclusions:.............................................................................................................................. 250

   Subterranean spaces:......................................................................................................... 250

   Conclusions:..................................................................................................................... 253

Chapter 4 – A Comparative Social Network Analysis of the Households of Rome in the Early and Late Fourth Century CE.. 254

   Introduction:.................................................................................................................... 254

   Historiography of the Method:........................................................................................... 257

   Methods of my Analysis:.................................................................................................... 262

       Software:.................................................................................................................................... 262

       Force-Directed Layouts:............................................................................................................. 263

       Modularity:................................................................................................................................. 265

       Degree:....................................................................................................................................... 266

       Eigenvector centrality:............................................................................................................... 266

       Betweenness Centrality:............................................................................................................. 266

   My Data:............................................................................................................................. 267

       Types of Connections/Edges:...................................................................................................... 268

       Early fourth Century Data Set:.................................................................................................... 270

       Late fourth Century Data Set:.................................................................................................... 276

   Analysis early fourth century:............................................................................................. 285

       Modularity:................................................................................................................................. 285

      Degree:....................................................................................................................................... 290

      Eigenvector centrality:............................................................................................................... 297

      Betweenness:.............................................................................................................................. 299

       Conclusions for 300-330 CE:...................................................................................................... 300

   Analysis late fourth century:...............................................................................................303

       Modularity:................................................................................................................................ 303

       Degree:........................................................................................................................................306

       Eigenvector centrality:............................................................................................................... 308

       Betweenness:............................................................................................................................. 309

   Conclusions:....................................................................................................................... 310

Chapter 5 – Conclusions.........................................................................................................313

Appendix – 3D Model of the Domus Azara..............................................................................326

   Objectives:.........................................................................................................................326

   History and Sources:...........................................................................................................326

   Goals:.................................................................................................................................327

   Results and Conclusions:....................................................................................................328

      Figure A.1: A direct line-of-sight from the courtyard to the exterior window.........................329

    Figure A.2: A view at human height from the courtyard through rooms B and C......................329

      Figure A.3: The view from room F across the courtyard with its blue tub to room D............... 330

      Figure A.4: The decoration of room B, showing the corner pilaster and cross vault, as well as the exterior window. 331

   List of sources:.................................................................................................................332

Works Cited:........................................................................................................................334

Catalog:..............................................................................................................................353

Figures:...............................................................................................................................748

    Chapter 1 – Figures:........................................................................................................748

    Chapter 2 – Figures:........................................................................................................757

    Chapter 3 – Figures:........................................................................................................769

    Chapter 4 – Figures:........................................................................................................783

    Chapter 5 – Figures:........................................................................................................819

    Catalog – Figures:...........................................................................................................821

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