Examination of the UPPS and Its Relation to Alcohol Use and Generalized Substance Use Problems in Rural African American Males Restricted; Files Only

Bertin, Lauren (Summer 2019)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/kh04dq80h?locale=en
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Abstract

Substance use (SU) remains a ubiquitous problem in the United States. Accumulating evidence suggests that racial/ethnic differences influence patterns of SU. For instance, although African Americans’ SU peaks later than peers of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, African Americans endorse more SU problems later in life. Studying protective and risk factors associated with SU may explain these population differences. The present study examined how impulsivity is related to future alcohol use and generalized SU problems in a cohort of African American males. Data were drawn from the African-American Men’s Project, an ongoing longitudinal study which recruited participants (NWAVE1=505; mean ageWAVE1 =20.7; NWAVE3=380; mean ageWAVE3=23.6) from 11 rural counties of South Georgia. Participants responded to 20 items from the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale at wave 1. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used to confirm the best fitting model of impulsivity. Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use was assessed at each wave. The number of DSM-5 SU problems were assessed using responses to the Minnesota Survey of SU Problem Scale. We compared four regression models (negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial, poisson, and zero-inflated poisson) to determine which best described the relations between wave 1 impulsivity factors and wave 3 alcohol use and substance-related problems. Analyses controlled for the effects of age, income, education, economic distress, and prior SU during wave 1. Consistent with the UPPS-P literature, a five-factor impulsivity model was confirmed via CFA in the full sample. Contrary to prior studies, zero-inflated models provided the best fit to these data for both outcomes. Higher scores on the Lack of Perseverance and Sensation Seeking were associated with greater odds of being a non-alcohol user (Odds Ratio = 7.46 [CI = 1.12, 50.40]; 1.99 [CI = 1.03, 3.82], respectively). Moreover, increased Lack of Premeditation was associated with reduced odds of being an non-alcohol user (0.14 [CI = 0.02,0.84]). Impulsivity did not predict individual differences in levels of typical past month consumption. Lastly, higher Negative Urgency was associated with increased generalized SU problems by a factor of 1.42 [CI =1.02,1.95]) per unit increase in Negative Urgency. Overall, the current study provides novel insight into the relationship between impulsivity and substance involvement during emerging adulthood in African Americans males. Notably, all facets of impulsivity are not alike in predicting SU in non-European American samples.

Table of Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….….1

Method……………………………………………….………………....…………………............9

Results……………………………………………………………………………………….…...14

General Discussion……………………………………………………………………….………19          

Limitations/Future Directions ……………………………...…………………………….23

References……………………………………………………...………………………………...26

Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Figure.……………………………………………………………………...…………………….50

Appendix A: Aligning Minnesota Survey of Substance Use Problem Scale with DSM-5……...51

Appendix B: Supplementary Goodness-of-fit for All Models………….………………………..52

Appendix C: Supplementary Output from STATA on Model Fits…...……...…………….…….53

Appendix D: Supplementary Analyses for Alcohol Use ………………………….…………….57

Appendix E: Supplementary Analyses for Substance Use Problems……………………………63

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