Divine Aggression in Royal Psalms and Inscriptions Restricted; Files Only

Cornell, Collin (Spring 2018)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/kh04dp702?locale=en
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Abstract

Since the 19th century, biblical scholarship has oftentimes drawn a stark dividing line between the profile of Yhwh, the God of the Hebrew Bible, and that of the “gods of the nations.” A few influential interpreters like Julius Wellhausen and Walther Eichrodt articulated the theological contrast in terms of divine aggression: Yhwh alone, they argued, shows capacity to aggress against his own client king and country. This thesis has gained fresh traction in recent scholarship on biblical prophetic literature insofar as its oracles of unconditional doom appear to lack analogy in other forms of ancient prophecy. 

The present study interrogates the proposed contrast between Yhwh and other patron gods. Its inquiry faces in two directions: after arguing on rhetorical and literary grounds that Syro-Palestinian memorial inscriptions and biblical royal psalms make fitting and productive objects of comparison (ch 1), it surveys memorial inscriptions to determine how they present the divine aggression of patron gods (ch 2). It next surveys select royal psalms from the Hebrew Bible to determine the character of Yhwh’s aggression (ch 3). These chapters find that instead of a contrast, the two kinds of text share many theological features, especially in that they absolutely exempt the individual client king from the deity’s aggression. However, the following chapter examines two royal psalms (Psalms 89 and 132), which, it argues, consider Yhwh’s aggression against his client king as a definite past event (ch 4). The following chapter probes one more textual data-set that underscores the proposed contrast of Yhwh and other gods, namely, prophetic texts of defeat (ch 5). The study concludes by modulating the thesis of a strong contrast between Yhwh’s aggressiveness and that of other, comparable patron deities—a result that will interest scholarship on biblical psalms, ancient inscriptions, and Hebrew Bible theology (ch 5).

 

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS – DIVINE AGGRESSION IN ROYAL PSALMS AND INSCRIPTIONS

Chapter 1: Divine Aggression in Comparative Perspective……………………………1

1.1.Introduction

1.2.The Research Question(s)

1.3.Memorial Inscriptions

1.3.1.Textual Corpora: Royal Memorial Inscriptions

1.3.1.1.Nonnarrativity: The Speaking Subject

1.3.1.2.Nonnarrativity: The (Dual) Addressee

1.4. Royal Psalms

1.4.1.Textual Corpora: Royal Psalms

1.4.1.1.Nonnarrativity: The Speaking Subject

1.4.1.2.Nonnarrativity: The (Dual) Addressee

1.5.Interrogating the Contrast: Plan of the Work

Chapter 2: Divine Aggression in Royal Inscriptions…………………………………38

2.1.Defining the Body of Textual Evidence

2.2. Rhetoric and Deity Profile

2.2.1. The Mesha Inscription (KAI 181)

2.2.1.1.Structure and Rhetoric of the Mesha Inscription

2.2.1.2.Divine Aggression in the Mesha Inscription

2.2.1.3. Conclusion

2.2.2. The Zakkur Inscription (KAI 202)

2.2.2.1. Structure and Rhetoric of the Zakkur Inscription

2.2.2.2. Divine Aggression in the Zakkur Inscription

2.2.2.3. Conclusion

2.2.3. The Tel Dan Inscription (KAI 310)

2.2.3.1. Structure and Rhetoric of the Tel Dan Inscription

2.2.3.2. Conclusion

2.2.4. The Hadad Inscription (KAI 214)

2.2.4.1.Structure and Rhetoric of the Hadad Inscription

2.2.4.2. Divine Aggression in the Hadad Inscription

2.2.4.3. Conclusion

2.2.5. The Azatiwada Inscription (KAI 26)

2.2.5.1. Structure and Rhetoric of the Azatiwada Inscription

2.2.5.2. Divine Aggression in the Azatiwada Inscription

2.2.5.3. Conclusion

2.2.6. The Amman Citadel Inscription (KAI 307)

2.2.6.1. Structure and Rhetoric of the Amman Citadel Inscription

2.2.6.2. Conclusion

2.3. Chapter Conclusion: Divine Aggression in Royal Inscriptions

2.4. A Postscript on the Love of Gods for Kings in Luwian Inscriptions

 

Chapter 3: Divine Aggression in Select Royal Psalms………………………………87

3.1 Defining the Body of Textual Evidence

3.2 Rhetoric and Deity Profile

3.3 Excursus on Text-Criticism

3.3.1 Psalm 2

3.3.1.1 Small Print Text-Critical Issues

3.3.1.2 Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 2

3.3.1.3 Divine Aggression in Psalm 2

3.3.1.4 Conclusion

3.3.1.5 Excursus on the Redaction of Psalm 2

3.3.2 Psalm 110

3.3.2.1 Small Print Text-Critical Issues

3.3.2.2 Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 110

3.3.2.3 Divine Aggression in Psalm 110

3.3.2.4 Conclusion

3.3.3 Psalm 20

3.3.3.1 Small Print Text-Critical Issues

3.3.3.2 Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 20

3.3.3.3 Divine Aggression in Psalm 20

3.3.4 Psalm 21

3.3.4.1 Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 21

3.3.4.2 Divine Aggression in Psalm 21

3.4 Chapter Conclusion: Divine Aggression in Select Royal Psalms

3.5 Comparing Royal Psalms and Inscriptions

Chapter 4: Divine Aggression in Royal Psalms of Defeat……………………………148

4.1.Defining the Body of Textual Evidence

4.2. Rhetoric and Deity Profile

4.2.1. Psalm 89

4.2.1.1. Small Print Text-Critical Issues

4.2.1.2. Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 89

4.2.1.3. Divine Aggression in Psalm 89

4.2.1.4. Conclusion

4.2.2. Psalm 132

4.2.2.1. Structure and Rhetoric of Psalm 132

4.2.2.2. Divine Aggression in Psalm 132

4.2.2.3. Conclusion

4.3. Chapter Conclusion: Divine Aggression in Royal Psalms of Defeat

4.4. Comparing Royal Psalms and Inscriptions Again

Chapter 5: Divine Aggression in Prophetic Texts of Defeat…………………………180 

5.1.Defining the Body of Textual Evidence

5.2. Rhetoric and Deity Profile

5.2.1. Selections from Hosea

5.2.1.1. Hosea 1:4-5

5.2.1.2. Hosea 3:4

5.2.1.3. Hosea 5:1-2 

5.2.1.4. Hosea 5:10

5.2.1.5. Hosea 6:11b-7:7

5.2.1.6. Hosea 8:4

5.2.1.7. Hosea 10:7-8a

5.2.1.8. Hosea 10:13b-15

5.2.1.9. Hosea 13:9-11

5.2.2. Divine Aggression in Hosea

5.2.3. Divine Aggression in Other “Eight Century Prophets”

5.2.3.1. Micah 3:1-4

5.2.3.2. Micah 3:9-12

5.2.3.3. Micah 4:9, 14

5.2.4. Conclusion

5.3. Chapter Conclusion: Divine Aggression in the Eighth-Century Prophets

Chapter Six: Conclusions and Implications…………………………………………200

6.1. Conclusions

6.2. Results for the Study of Royal Psalms

6.3. Results for the Study of Syro-Palestinian Inscriptions

6.4. Results for the Study of Hebrew Bible Theology

6.5. Results for the Study of the History of Israelite Religion

 

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………...215

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