Ethnic Mobilization and Fiscal Distribution in Pakistan Open Access

Halepota, Shahmeer A (2011)

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Following September 11th, the spotlight has been focused on Pakistan in relation to
its efforts in fighting the "War on Terrorism." Although substantial aid and attention has
been paid towards securing the nation's borders and protecting its nuclear arsenal, another
threat towards Pakistan's stability has been largely ignored: the internal tension between
the nation's various ethnic groups. Since its inception, Pakistan's minority ethnic groups
have felt that they are oppressed and trapped in a system where they receive inequitable
treatment from the federal government. More specifically, they argue that the dominant
Punjab province has created a hegemony over the nation where it is able to divert
resources from the other provinces. Punjabi hegemony, however, is at times challenged
depending on the political party in power. I will, therefore, argue that an ethnic group's
ability to effectively mobilize at the provincial and national levels (through representation
in the Provincial and National Assemblies) effects the fiscal allocation that it receives from
the federal government. Essentially, I will examine the validity of the minority province's
grievances by conducting a case study of the Sindh province and examining whether
fluctuations in representation lead to corresponding fluctuations in fiscal allocation.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Section pg.

Introduction 1-3

A History of Grievances 3-11
Table 1.1: The Military Elite in Pakistan, 1955 6
Table 1.2 Central Secretariat Elite Posts, 1955 7

Comparative Studies 11-14

Hypothesis 14-17

Research Design 17-22

Period One: The Zulifqar Ali Bhutto Administration (1971--1977) 22-26

Period Two: The Zia--ul--Haq Regime (1977--1988) 26-31

Table 2.1 1981 -- Ethnic Composition of Sindh (%) 28

Period Three: The Benzair Bhutto Era (1988--1990) 31-34

Conclusion 34-40

Table 3.1 - Summary of Results 34

Works Cited 41-43

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