The Relationship Between Plant Based Diets and Cardiovascular Disease: A Literature Review. 1990 - 2015 Open Access

Bell, Cheri (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/k643b148x?locale=en
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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a significant public health problem because it is the number one cause of preventable death worldwide (CDC, 2015; Mathieu, Pibarot & Despres, 2006). The most common outcomes of cardiovascular disease are heart attacks and strokes. The underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes is atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by the buildup of plaque within artery walls. Heart attacks and strokes occur when plaques rupture and block blood flow to the heart or the brain. Cardiovascular disease often goes undetected until one experiences a medical emergency such as a heart attack or stroke. Currently, in the United States, over 600,000 people die annually from cardiovascular disease.

Population studies and clinical trials strongly suggest that cardiovascular disease can be prevented and reversed by eating a plant-based diet. This literature review was conducted to examine the effects of dietary patterns on cardiovascular disease. It is hoped that results from this review provide an incentive to educate physicians and the general population about the health promoting benefits of plant-based nutrition.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………………………………………......1

1.1 Introduction and Rationale ………………………………………………………………….….1

1.2 Problem Statement ………………………………...………………………………………….....2

1.3 Theoretical Framework …………………………………...……………………………….......3

1.4 Purpose Statement ………………………………………………...………………………….....3

1.5 Significance Statement…………………….………………………………………………….....4

1.6 Terms and Abbreviations …………………...………………………………………………....4

Chapter 2: Review of the Literature……………………………………………………….………7

2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………............7

2.2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………….........7

2.3 Summary of Current Problem and Study Relevance………………...………….12

Chapter 3: Methodology……………………………………………………………...…………......17

3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………...………………………..........17

3.2 Population and Sample……………………………….……………………………………......17

3.3 Research Study Design…………………….………………………………………………......17

3.4 Procedures……………………….…………………………………………………………............18

3.5 Instruments……………………….…………………………………………………………..........18

3.6 Data Analysis Plan………………………………………………………………………….........20

3.7 Limitations and Delimitations………………………….………………………………….....20

Chapter 4: Results………………………………………………………………………………..........22

4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………......................22

4.2 Findings…………………………………………………...………………………………..............24

4.3 Summary…………………………………………………………………...………………............30

Chapter 5: Conclusions, Implications and Recommendations…………………....32

5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..…………...........32

5.2 Summary of Study…………………………………………………………………………........32

5. 3 Conclusions………………………………………………………...……………………….........33

5. 4 Implications………………………………………………………...………………………........33

5.5 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………........34

References…………………………………………………………..……………………………..........35

List of Tables and Figures

Table 2.1: Criteria For Inclusion…………………………………………..………………………8

Table 2.2: Outcome Summary for Journals …………………………………………….…11

Table 3.5a: Embase & Pubmed Database Searches……………………………………19

Table 3.5b: Journal Questionnaire Comparison Tool………………………………….19

Table 4.2a: Research Questions Addressed According To Author……………..26

Figure 4.1a: Diagram for Plant Based Diet Journals/Articles on CVD………..22

Figure 4.1b: Number of Journals/Articles By Publication Year……………………23

Figure 4.2a: How Cardiovascular Disease Forms…………………………………...….24

Figure 4.2b: Regression in Angina and CVD Issues…………………………………….25

Figure 4.2 Research Question Results………………………………………………………….26

Figure 4.3a: Number of Studies By The Type of Research………………………...30

Figure 4.3b: Study Methodology Used In The Research Studies………………..30

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