All Things to All People: Luke's Paul as an Orator in Diverse Social Contexts translation missing: es.hyrax.visibility.files_restricted.text

Wason, Brandon (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/k0698827w?locale=es
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Abstract

This dissertation looks at two issues related to the characterization of Paul in the book of Acts: (1) whether Luke, the author of Acts, makes use of the rhetorical exercise of speech-in-character (prosopopoeia/ethopoeia), and (2) what Luke's purposes are in portraying Paul as a gifted speaker who adapts to different rhetorical situations. Thus, this dissertation looks at each speech individually, and then considers the cumulative portrait of Paul in Acts.

The first chapter addresses preliminary considerations and outlines the dissertation's approach to understanding the characterization of Paul in the speeches. The second chapter defines speech-in-character, contextualizes it in its ancient educational setting, and addresses how progymnastic authors treat it. This chapter also considers the composition of speeches by Greek and Roman historians by focusing on the tension between suitability and accuracy. The following four chapters each analyze one of the four selected speeches through the lens of speech-in-character: Paul's speech before the Ephesian elders in Miletus (Acts 20), Paul's speech before diaspora Jews in the synagogue of Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13), Paul's speech before Greeks at the Areopagus in Athens (Acts 17), and Paul's defense before King Agrippa in Caesarea (Acts 26).

The epilogue outlines some of the implications of this study. It determines that speech-in-character is a useful tool for understanding Luke's compositional practices. The dissertation also highlights the variety of Paul's roles in Acts. Luke portrays Paul as a pastor, a prophetic interpreter of Scripture, a philosopher, and an orator. This shows that there is no typical form for a Pauline speech, but Luke crafts each speech with respect to its literary context and adapts Paul's social roles to these contexts as well. Luke presents his readers with a complex picture of Paul: he is the adaptable orator who has the appropriate words and suitable modes of communication for any situation. This dissertation also contends that the speeches play an important paradigmatic role in Luke's day. According to Luke, there are multiple ways to approach to the gospel, and Luke's readers should employ the same type of adaptability that Paul models in Acts.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

List of Tables................................................................................................................................................................................ iv

List of Abbreviations.................................................................................................................................................................. v

Chapter 1: Preliminary Considerations................................................................................................................................. 1

1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 Paul's Speeches in Acts: A Preview.................................................................................................................... 5

1.3 Scholarship on the Nature of the Speeches and the Portrait of Paul in Acts.................................... 11

Chapter 2: Speech-in-Character and Ancient Historiography................................................................................. 25

2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 25

2.2 Speech-in-Character............................................................................................................................................. 26

2.2.1 Greek and Roman Education and the Progymnasmata.......................................................... 26

2.2.2 The Progymnasmata and Speech-in-Character......................................................................... 37

2.2.3 Prosopopoeia in Aelius Theon......................................................................................................... 38

2.2.4 Ethopoeia in Ps.-Hermogenes and Aphthonius........................................................................ 43

2.2.5 Ethopoeia in Libanius of Antioch................................................................................................... 47

2.2.6 Propriety and Speech-in-Character............................................................................................... 50

2.2.7 Speech-in-Character as a Heuristic Device................................................................................. 52

2.3 Speeches in Historiography............................................................................................................................... 54

2.3.1 Thucydides's Peloponnesian War.................................................................................................... 54

2.3.2 Dionysius of Halicarnassus................................................................................................................ 58

2.3.3 Josephus's Jewish War......................................................................................................................... 60

2.3.4 Tacitus's Agricola.................................................................................................................................. 63

2.4 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................... 65

Chapter 3: Paul as Pastor in the Miletus Speech (Acts 20:18-35)............................................................................ 67

3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................. 67

3.2 Scholarship on the Miletus Speech................................................................................................................ 68

3.3 Luke's Characterization of Paul in the Miletus Speech........................................................................... 78

3.3.1 Luke's "Familiar" Paul........................................................................................................................... 78

3.3.2 The Audience: The Ephesian Elders............................................................................................... 83

3.3.3 The Genre: Farewell Address............................................................................................................ 89

3.3.4 Paul's Age.................................................................................................................................................. 91

3.3.5 Paul's State of Mind or Disposition................................................................................................ 93

3.3.6 Paul's Social Status: The Pastor........................................................................................................ 95

3.3.6.1 The Model Elder..................................................................................................................... 98

3.3.6.2 Paul's Course and Ministry.............................................................................................. 102

3.3.6.3 The Shepherd-Flock Motif............................................................................................... 104

3.4 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................................. 107

Chapter 4: Paul as Prophetic Interpreter in the Pisidian Antioch Speech (Acts 13:16-47)........................... 110

4.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................................ 110

4.2 Scholarship on the Speech................................................................................................................................. 111

4.3 Location and Setting............................................................................................................................................ 121

4.3.1 The City of Pisidian Antioch............................................................................................................. 121

4.3.2 The Synagogue Setting....................................................................................................................... 127

4.4 Luke's Characterization of Paul in Pisidian Antioch.............................................................................. 129

4.4.1 The Audience: Jews and God-fearers............................................................................................ 129

4.4.2 The Genre: Missionary Speech........................................................................................................ 134

4.4.3 General and Specific Forms of Speech-in-Character............................................................. 135

4.4.4 Paul's Interpretation of Scripture................................................................................................... 141

4.4.5 The Prophetic Paul............................................................................................................................... 151

4.4.6 Paul as Orator........................................................................................................................................ 156

4.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................................. 161

Chapter 5: Paul as Philosopher in the Areopagus Speech (Acts 17:16-34)......................................................... 162

5.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 162

5.2 Scholarship on the Areopagus Speech........................................................................................................ 164

5.3 Location and Setting: Areopagus of Athens.............................................................................................. 174

5.4 Luke's Characterization of Paul in the Areopagus Speech................................................................... 178

5.4.1 Audience.................................................................................................................................................. 178

5.4.2 Paul's State of Mind............................................................................................................................. 183

5.4.3 Paul as Philosopher............................................................................................................................. 185

5.4.4 Paul as Orator........................................................................................................................................ 195

5.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................................. 197

Chapter 6: Paul as Defense Attorney in the Speech before Agrippa (Acts 26:1-32)....................................... 201

6.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 201

6.2 Contextualizing the Speech among Paul's other Defense Speeches............................................... 202

6.3 Scholarship on the Speech before Agrippa............................................................................................... 208

6.4 Location and Setting: Trial Scene at Caesarea Maritima...................................................................... 216

6.5 Luke's Characterization of Paul in the Speech before Agrippa.......................................................... 219

6.5.1 Paul's Audience..................................................................................................................................... 219

6.5.2 Paul's Language................................................................................................................................... 224

6.5.3 Paul's "Way of Life"............................................................................................................................. 228

6.5.4 Paul's State of Mind............................................................................................................................ 231

6.5.5 Paul's Social Status: Defense Attorney....................................................................................... 236

6.6 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................ 246

Chapter 7: Epilogue................................................................................................................................................................ 249

7.1 Speech-in-Character as a Tool for Analysis............................................................................................... 249

7.2 The Variety of the Pauline Speech................................................................................................................. 252

7.3 The Complex Picture of Paul........................................................................................................................... 254

7.4 The Exemplary Role of Luke's Portrait of Paul......................................................................................... 255

Bibliography.............................................................................................................................................................................. 259

Ancient Sources: Editions and Translations.................................................................................................... 259

Tools and Reference Works.................................................................................................................................... 261

Commentaries on the Book of Acts.................................................................................................................... 262

Monographs, Articles, and Other Resources................................................................................................... 264

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