Availability and Treatment Efficacy of On-Site Household Sanitation Systems in Indonesia: Mixed Methods Analysis Open Access

Siesel, Casey James (2017)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/jw827c43q?locale=en
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Abstract

INTRODUCTION : Adequate sanitation remains an unattainable need for billions around the world. Past and present development programs aim to reduce those without access, and well-performing and appropriate solutions are essential to addressing these needs. Indonesia is a country with countrywide sanitation access at over 60%, where many low-income communities living in dense urban or challenging environments remain underserved. This study addresses 3 aims: (1) document alternative sanitation system designs and principles through literature reviews, stakeholder interviews, and observations, (2) determine stakeholder-recommended on-site sanitation systems and technologies, (3) analyze treatment levels of alternative on-site sanitation systems.

METHODS : Data was collected utilizing literature reviews, stakeholder interviews, household surveys, system observations, and laboratory analysis. Literature reviews and interviews were used to determine availability and design factors associated with alternative sanitation systems throughout Indonesia, including locations, recommendations, and technical factors. These data were analyzed to determine common themes of stakeholder recommendations and to aid in later field studies. Surveys and observations were performed at households utilizing alternative on-site sanitation systems and are used to analyze design and operational factors alongside effluent. Laboratory analysis was performed using wastewater effluent collected during field studies. This data was analyzed to determine differential treatment levels and influential factors for varying designs. Multivariate ridge regression was utilized to evaluate treatment indicators by potential predictor variables impacted by multicollinearity, such as design factors, operational factors, and other quality indicators. Primary outcome indicators include pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, oils and grease, Escherichia coli, and fecal sludge depth.

FINDINGS : Literature reviews and stakeholder interviews identified 10 on-site sanitation system designs, condensed into 9 categories based on common designs. Themes related to nutrients, fecal indicators, fecal sludge, and the design of systems were common across stakeholders interviewed, and were reflected in many of the designs seen during field investigations. Through multivariate ridge regression, system volume, number of filters, and type of inflow were found to predict multiple treatment indicators. In regards to operational and environmental factors, number of household members, emptying/desludging frequency, years in household, age of system, and temperature were found to predict multiple treatment indicators.

Table of Contents

Background....................................................... 1

Significance....................................................... 6

Sanitation in Indonesia..................................... 8

Indonesia Sanitation Policy and Programs................ 9

Sanitation Regulations and Standards..................... 12

Study Aims......................................................... 16

Materials and Methods...................................... 16

Study Site........................................................... 17

Key Stakeholder Discussions.................................. 19

National Stakeholder Discussions.................... 21

Study Site Key Stakeholder Discussions........... 23

Survey Collection.................................................. 25

Technical Assessment............................................ 26

Technical Observation................................... 27

Sample Collection......................................... 27

Sample Processing........................................ 30

Quality Control............................................. 31

Key Stakeholder Discussion Analysis....................... 32

Statistical Analysis................................................ 32

Results............................................................... 34

Stakeholder Discussions......................................... 34

Wastewater Quality Indicators......................... 35

Sanitation Systems........................................ 36

Statistical Analysis................................................. 45

Demographics............................................... 46

Treatment Factor Analyses...................................... 48

BOD and COD................................................ 49

TSS.............................................................. 51

Oil and Grease............................................... 53

E. coli and Total Coliforms............................... 54

pH............................................................... 56

Temperature................................................. 58

Sludge Depth................................................. 60

Regression Analyses................................................ 61

Simple Linear Regression................................. 61

Ridge Regression............................................ 62

Influent and Well Water........................................... 63

Discussion............................................................ 65

Stakeholder Discussions........................................... 65

Sanitation System Treatment.................................... 66

Limitations............................................................ 74

Conclusions........................................................... 76

Recommendations for Future Studies.......................... 77

References............................................................. 79

Figures................................................................... 84

Appendix A - Household Survey............................. 87

Appendix B - Observation Tool............................... 95

Appendix C - Statistical Analysis............................ 96

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