Personal care products (PCPs) contain both inert and active ingredients that are purported endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Since PCPs are typically placed in abundance on the skin, dermal (and inhalational for aerosols) transmission of chemicals into the systemic bloodstream of the body readily occurs and typically at higher levels than most environmental chemical exposures. PCP chemicals of interest include phthalates, parabens, disinfectants (ortho-phenyl phenol, triclosan and triclocarban) and environmental phenols such as bisphenol A. Those active ingredients in PCPs that are purported EDCs are proved to have effects on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility and even carcinogenesis. Because of the acknowledgement of potential adverse health effects on human health, several PCP chemicals are being displaced by substitutes, and few studies focuses on consequent trends in population level exposures. This study examines the time trend in urinary concentrations of phthalate, paraben, and phenol metabolites in the general U.S population and whether trends vary by certain sociodemographic characteristics, by using NHANES dataset from 1999-2016. Our results suggest that minority segments of the population tended to have the highest levels of urinary metabolites for PCPs. For the most part, phthalates and parabens were highest in Hispanic and Black female participants but also were high in all Hispanics and Black participants. Urinary Bisphenol S was highest in Hispanic and Black adolescent and adult males whereas Urinary Bisphenol A was highest in Black children and female adults. Triclosan was highest in Hispanics while Benzophenone-3, a component of sunscreens, was highest in Hispanic females as well as White females. Although this study faces several limitations that may hinder the generalizability, including the cross-sectional design of NHANES, the limitation of biomonitoring, this study has revealed time trends of specific PCP chemicals in the general US population, which can be referred for future research and policy making.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About this Master's Thesis
|Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor|
|Time trend analysis of personal care product chemicals in the general US population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2016) ()||2021-05-04 18:57:52 -0400||