Sleepless in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Insomnia and the Variations in Sleep Quality among Visitors of Primary Health Care Centers Open Access

Bashawri, Hisham Abdulsalam (2013)

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Objective: To study to determine the prevalence of insomnia, sleep quality and related factors among visitors to PHCCs in Makkah, to investigate the extent of sleep problems in relation to the frequency of treatment, and to evaluate a simple screening tool helping PHCC physicians identify people with sleep problems.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional survey conducted among 463 participants in five primary health care centers in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. The main tool used to collect data was an interview using a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. .

Results: In this study, 61.8% were classified as good sleepers, while 38.2% were classified as bad sleepers. The prevalence of insomnia was 29.4%. Females were about 2 times more likely than males to complain of sleep problems in each category except for widowed males. Insomnia was associated with female gender, chronic diseases and bad sleep habits. Also, 78% of participants with sleep problems were not being treated for them.

Conclusion: Sleep problems and insomnia are common, underestimated, and undertreated in Saudi Arabia. I recommend forming a Saudi Center for Sleep concerned with the medical and epidemiological aspects of sleep. Efforts should focus on understanding insomnia and other sleep problems, especially in females. PHCC doctors need to be trained to evaluate insomnia and other sleep problems with simple screening tool and to prescribe the appropriate management.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction. 1

1.1 Overview.. 1

1.2 Study Setting. 1

1.3 Significance. 2

1.4 Rationale. 3

1.5 Objectives. 4

Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 5

2.1 Prevalence of Insomnia. 5

2.2 Consequences of insomnia and other sleep problems. 5

2.3 High-Risk Patients. 7

2.4 Attitudes of Patients and Doctors Toward Insomnia. 7

2.5 Questionnaire. 8

Chapter 3: Methods 9

3.1 Study Design. 9

3.2 Study Setting. 10

3.3 Study Population and Sample Size. 10

3.4 Questionnaire. 11

3.5 Variables. 11

3.6 Data Analysis. 15

Chapter 4: Results 16

4.1 Sample Size. 16

4.2 Age and Gender 16

4.3 Other Demographic Data. 16

4.4 General Sleep Habits. 19

Chapter 5: Discussion. 37

5.1 Sleep Habits among PHCCs Visitors in Makkah. 37

5.2 Consequences of Changes in Sleep Habits. 39

5.3 Gender-Related Sleep Habits. 39

5.4 Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis. 40

5.5 Other Associated Factors of Insomnia and Bad Sleep Quality. 41

5.6 Lack of Awareness. 41

5.7 Screening Tool 42

5.8 Limitations. 42

Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations 43

References 44

Appendix A: Map of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 46

Appendix B: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 47

Appendix C: The Participating Primary Health Care Centers in the Study 58

Appendix D: Arabic Version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 59

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