Short-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Acute Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Response in a Panel of Adults in Atlanta, GA Open Access

Cornwell, Cheryl (2016)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/hm50ts404?locale=en
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Abstract

Background: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to numerous, adverse cardiorespiratory health outcomes. A growing body of research supports the hypothesis that acute, cardiorespiratory response is linked to inflammatory and oxidative stress mediated pathways. However, uncertainty remains around the specific biological mechanisms underlying these health effects.

Aims: The aim of this study is to examine associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollutants and acute changes in cardiorespiratory biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in a panel of adults with and without asthma. A secondary aim is to explore potential differences in the exposure-response relationship by asthma status and other subject-specific characteristics.

Methods: This analysis uses baseline, biomarker data from the Atlanta Commuter Studies (ACE-1 and ACE-2), as well as ambient concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and O3 from a stationary ambient monitoring site located in Atlanta, GA. Mixed-effect linear models were used to explore associations between pollution concentrations and changes in biomarker levels. Associations were examined using several exposure windows, including the 1-day, 3-day and 7-day pollutant concentration averages prior to subjects' biomarker measurements.

Results: Positive associations were found primarily between NO2 and the endpoints eNO, CRP and SAA at the prior 1-day exposure window, as well as at the prior 3-day exposure average with CRP. No significant interaction was detected by asthma status in any of the models.

Conclusions: This analysis builds on evidence from previous studies that have also found positive associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Further research should be conducted to confirm these results and to carry out additional analysis on potential interactions by asthma status and other factors.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………….................................................1 METHODS…………………………………………………………………………...…..................................................3 RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………....................................................7 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………..................................................10 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………...….................................................16 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………...…..................................................17 Table 1: Subject characteristics of adults in the ACE studies, combined panel………...................24

Table 2: Summary statistics: ambient air pollution for the 1-day, 3-day, and 7-day moving

averages prior to subject biomarker measurements ……………………….........................................25

Table 3: Epidemiologic Model Results for all log-transformed biomarker endpoints and pollutant

exposure averages, controlling for temperature and relative humidity ……………………………..........…26

Figure 1: Mixed model estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (eNO and NO2)…………..……….…..29

Figure 2: Mixed model estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (CRP and NO2)………………………….30

Figure 3: Mixed model estimates and 95% Confidence Intervals (SAA and NO2)………………………….31

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