Occupational Exposures to Chemicals (Organic Solvents) in Laboratories 公开

Alexis, Dianne (2012)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/h702q701m?locale=zh
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Abstract

Background: Occupational exposures to organic solvents on a daily basis can have serious effects on the health and well being of laboratory employees. This study aimed to examine whether safe practices have been adopted among laboratory employees using organic solvents and to investigate if these safe practices were influenced by the knowledge of and the attitude towards harmful effects of organic solvents.


Methods: A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey (KAP) was used to collect data about safe laboratory practices. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal - Wallis Test were used to examine the association of either, knowledge percent score, practice percent score or attitude percent score of socio-demographic characteristics.


Results: 120 questionnaires were administered with an anticipated response rate of 50% (60 responses). Of those asked to participate, 46 of them responded giving an overall response rate of 38.3%. Of the 46 respondents in this study: 14 were males and 32 were females. The majority of the respondents were PhD-educated females with more than 2 years previous work experience.


Conclusion: There wasn't enough evidence to conclude that a greater knowledge of chemical properties and their harmful effects result in better and safer practices

Table of Contents

DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT………………………………………………………………….i
APPROVAL SHEET……………………………………………………………………………...ii
ABSTRACT COVER PAGE…………………………………………………………………….iii
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………...iv
COVER PAGE………….………………………………………………………………………...v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………………..vii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………………......x
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem Definition................................................................................................................ 4
1.3 Research Objectives .............................................................................................................. 5
1.4 Research Questions: .............................................................................................................. 5
1.5 Hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………….5
2. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 7
2.1.2 Relevant Studies………………………………………………………………………….7
2.2 Handling of Chemicals ....................................................................................................... 10
2.2.1 Benzene: Handling and Storage………………………………………………………….11
2.2.2 Dichloromethane: Handling and Storage………………………………………………. 11
2.2.3 Formaldehyde: Handling and Storage…………………………………………………. 11
2.2.4 Xylene: Handling and Storage………………………………………………………….12
2.3 OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) ...................................................................... 12
2.3.1 PEL of Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) 29CFR 1910.1052 ............................ 13
2.3.2 PEL of Xylene 29CFR 1910.1200 ............................................................................. 13
2.3.3 PEL of Benzene 29CFR 1910.1028 ........................................................................... 14
2.3.4 PEL of Formaldehyde/Formalin Solutions 29CFR 1910.1048.................................. 14
2.4 Effects and lethal doses of chemicals ................................................................................. 15
2.4.1 Effects of xylene and lethal doses ................................................................................ 15
2.4.2 Effects of benzene and lethal doses ............................................................................. 16
2.4.3 Effects of formaldehyde and formalin solutions and lethal doses ............................... 16
2.4.4 Effects of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) and lethal doses ............................. 17
2.5 Laboratory Safety and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) .............................................. 17
2.6 Implementing Laboratory Safety Procedures to Reduce Exposures................................... 19
2.6.1 Exposure Monitoring ................................................................................................... 19
2.6.2 Controlling Worker Exposure and Education .............................................................. 19
2.6.3 Contaminant Control .................................................................................................... 20
2.6.4 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ......................................................................... 20
2.6.5 Chemical Substitution .................................................................................................. 21
3. Methodology- Subjects and Methods ....................................................................................... 22
3.1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 22
3.2 Methods - Study Design, Sample Size and Sampling Method .......................................... 22
3.3 Ethical Implications ............................................................................................................ 23
3.4 KAP Variables .................................................................................................................... 23
3.5 Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 24
3.5.1 Statistical Technique .................................................................................................... 25
4. Results ...................................................................................................................................... 26
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 26
4.2 Findings - Socio-demographic Characteristics .................................................................. 26
4.2.1 Relationship between knowledge percent score and demographic characteristics…… 28
4.2.2 Relationship between attitude percent score and demographic characteristics…………29
4.2.3 Relationship between practice percent score and demographic characteristics…………30
4.2.4 Relationship between duration of employment and safe practices ……………………..31
4.2.5 Distribution of knowledge, attitude, and safe practice percent scores ………………….32
4.3 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………..34
5. Discussion ................................................................................................................................ 35
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 35
5.2 Summary of the study ......................................................................................................... 35
5.3 Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 36
5.4 Limitations .......................................................................................................................... 36
5.5 Implications………………………………………………………………………………. 37
5.6 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………39
References………………………………………………………………………………… …..40
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………………….48

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