Restoring the Ultimate Sense of Shame: A Pastoral Theology of Shameability Restricted; Files Only

Chi, Kwan-Hae (2015)

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This dissertation presents a pastoral theology of shame (which includes Shameability) as a complex, multilayered phenomenon. It shows that Shameability is part of who we are based on our being created in the image of God, meaning that Shameability exits before the fall; however, it is distorted by sin and psychopathology after the fall. This dissertation illustrates how a revised theological anthropology that includes Shameability will affect our interpretation of pastoral encounters, as well as human interactions on a more global scale.

For this purpose, I adapted my Neo-Confucian heritage. Neo-Confucian anthropology views 'shame' not as something negative but as something crucial that is present in the characteristic of a sage--the one who lives according to nature as it was endowed directly from Heaven/God. From this Neo-Confucian anthropological perspective, it is the people without 'shame' that have a problem, not the ones with 'shame.' This unique aspect of Neo-Confucian 'shame' forms the backbone of this dissertation, and my pastoral theology of Shameability is a re-interpretation of the Neo-Confucian concept of suojishim based on my perspective as a Korean American pastoral theologian.

What I mean by Shameability (the ultimate sense of Shame) is the capacity to see, recognize, and experience the potential disconnection (Shame) within the state of being united with God, self, and others. This dissertation assumes that human beings are born with the seed of Shameability so that they can grow toward true and complete human being as it is found in Jesus. While human beings are created according to the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27), this capacity itself indicates that God is God of Shameability as well, meaning that God can never become a God of Shame, or Shamelessness.

The dissertation suggests that all humans have the capacity to experience six different levels of shame within three categories of shame-related states both at an individual and communal level. The three categories are: 1) shame, 2) shamelessness, 3) shameability (sense of shame). The six levels are: 1) proto, 2) pathological, 3) stigma, 4) social, 5) moral, and 6) ultimate. While this means that there can be a total of eighteen shame related states for all human beings, the pastoral theology of Shameability assumes that Shameability/the ultimate sense of Shame (p-vi) is the only undistorted form of shame that God originally granted human beings.

As this dissertation understands 'shaming' and 'affirming Shameability' to be different, it concludes that the caregiver's job is not to help a person or nation to avoid, relieve, remove, or defend against shame, but to help restore that person or nation to the ultimate sense of Shame through nurturing, empowering and liberating the seed of Shameability as it is found in Jesus' ministry.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1
Shameability as Part of Human Nature 6
Neo-Confucian Anthropology of Suojishim 8
Shameability as the Mark of a True Human: Contributions of Neo-Confucianism 9
Statement of Purpose 12
Main Arguments 13
Methodology 16
A Case and Context 20
Ec's Case 20
Prediction and Research Question 23
Structure 24
Chapter Overviews 26
Limitations of the Project and Suggestions for Future Studies 29
Definition of Terms 31
Six Levels of Shame 31
Three Categories of Shame on the Ultimate Level 32

Development of Psychodynamic Theories of Shame: Freud and His Followers 34
The First Phase--Sigmund Freud 34
1) Motive for Defending Against Exposure 35
2) Drive Inhibitor 37
3) Shame and Ego-ideal 39
4) Shame and Super-ego 40
Sigmund Freud's Contributions 42
1) Shamelessness 42
2) Counter Transference 43
Freud's Limitations and Problems 44
1) Focus Almost Exclusively on Guilt 44
2) No Sense of Shame 46
3) Understanding Human Nature as Shameless 48
Conclusion/Freud 48
The Second Phase--Three Generations of Shame Study After Freud 49
Contributions of Erikson 51
Problems and Limitations of Erikson 51
Gerhart Piers' Theory 52
The Vicious Cycle of Shame and Guilt 53
Contributions 55
Problems and Limitations 55
Helen Block Lewis (1971)--Second Generation 56
The Launching of a Modern Study of Shame 56
Motivation and Method 56
Lewis' Contribution: Learning from Analyst's Discomfort 57
Bypassed Shame 58
Distinction Between Guilt and Shame 58
The Differences between Lewis' and Erikson's/Piers' Distinctions 59
Lewis versus Erikson/Piers 59
Piers versus Lewis 59
Lewis: Problems and Limitations 60
Seeing Shame as a Problem 60
Under Freud's Umbrella 61
A False Assumption 61

Six Levels of Shame 63
The Third Generation 64
Proto Level 65
Contributions and Limitations: Evolutionary Psychology 69
Pathological Level 78
Shame and Psychopathology 79
Object Relations Theory Tradition--Warren Kinston 79
Self Psychology Tradition: Wurmser and Morrison 82
Affect Theory Tradition: Nathanson and Kaufman 85
Overview 90
Contributions and Limitations of the Third Generation Theories and the Claims of the Pastoral Theology of Shameability 90

Shame on Stigma, Social, and Moral Levels 98
Stigma Level 99
Erving Goffman 100
Contributions and Limitations 105
Stigma-based Shame 108
Social Level 110
Gabriele Taylor 111
Meaning of Audience 115
Three Categories of Shame on the Social Level 117
Moral Level 121
Views of the Recent Empirical Psychology 123
Shame as a Moral Emotion: The Position of Deonna and His Colleagues 124
Three Categories of Shame on the Moral Level: A Scenario-Based Understanding 128
Conclusion 131

Ultimate Level 133
Augustine of Hippo 134
Andrew Sung Park 138
Paul Tillich 144
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 149
The Ultimate Sense of Shame in Bonhoeffer 158
Conclusion 164

Restoring the Ultimate Sense of Shame: A Pastoral Theology of Shameability (I)--Biblical Perspective 166
Jesus' Pastoral Ministry of Restoring Shameability 168
Nurturing Caregivers' Own Shameability: Prayer 169
Shame Category: Adam and Eve 170
Shameless Category: Cain 171
Shameability Category: Jesus Christ 172
Jesus' Daily Life of Prayer 173
Nurturing Shameability through Proclaiming the Words of God: Kerygma 176
The Fulfilled Law 178
Nurturing Shameability of Disciples: Pastoral Formation 182
The Parable of the Good Samaritan 190
Interpretation of the Parable from a Care Givers' Perspective 191
Church: A Community of Restoring Shameability 197
Conclusion 199

Restoring the Ultimate Sense of Shame: A Pastoral Theology of Shameability (II) - Cases, Contexts, Situational Analysis and Developing a New Response 201
Shameability and a Case of Korean Parish 202
Ai's Case 202
Bi's Case 205
Ci's Case 209
Dc's Case 214
Overview 219
Ec's Case 220
Fc's Case: Towards Restoring the Ultimate Sense of Shame on a Global Level 221
Shame Category: Korea 222
Shamelessness Category: Dominant Parties 223
Shame of North Korea 225
Shame of South Korea 226
The Shamelessness of the United States 229
Overview 231
Conclusion 232

Appendix: The Case of North Korea 237

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