Analysis of Remains from Field V Excavations at Tel Halif: An Archaeological Source of Identity Open Access

Reynolds, Kathryn Rose (2012)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/gx41mj01k?locale=en
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Abstract

Abstract
Analysis of Remains from Field V Excavations at Tel Halif: An Archaeological Source of
Identity
In 701 B.C.E., the Assyrian King Sennacherib campaigned in Judah in response to a
revolt instigated by the Judean king Hezekiah. Destruction levels dated to this time can be found
at excavated sites all over the southern Levant region. This report focuses on the material
evidence sealed in this destruction level (Stratum VIB) of one such site on the southern fringe of
Judah: Tel Halif. In the late 8th century B.C.E., Tel Halif was a small, rural fortified town
situated on the northern edge of the Negev desert. The extensive amount of ash, destruction
debris, and materials dating to the Iron Age II supports the thought that Tel Halif suffered under
Sennacherib's siege like many other settlements. These circumstances provide a unique
opportunity to understand life at Tel Halif and in the southern Levant during the Iron Age II. It
also sheds light on Hezekiah's revolt and the brutal consequences taken out on any participating
parties (involvement being implied by the presence of lmlk stamp impressions and lmlk-type
jars).
For many years archaeologists have sought to build connections between the material
culture excavated from the archaeological record and the societies that produced those remains.
At its most basic level this thesis aspires to do the same by examining and interpreting the
material excavated in Field V of Tel Halif, Israel from 2007 to 2009 focusing specifically on the
remains from Stratum VIB in Areas D7, E6, and E7 as they pertain to household archaeology
and foreign contact. These investigations should add information to the foundation of data that is
currently used for reconstructions of Iron Age (1200 to 500 B.C.E.) Judah.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sources of Illustrations........... i

Introduction........... 1

Chapter 1: Background........... 7

Geography........... 8

History of Excavations........... 9

History of Occupation........... 17

Biblical Identification and the Siege of Sennacherib........... 24

Chapter 2: Household Archaeology in Areas D7, E6, and E7 of Field V........... 35

The Household, Activities, and Ethnoarchaeology........... 38

The Pillared Dwelling........... 41

Spatial Analysis........... 49

Artifact Context........... 50

Formation Processes........... 52

Excavation Methodology in Field V........... 54

Sources of Evidence........... 55

Determining a Vessel's Function........... 57

Recovery and Processing of Ceramics in the Field........... 61

Procedures at the Cobb Institute of Archaeology........... 61

Rooms of Areas D7, E6, and E7 as part of a Pillared Dwelling........... 67

Formation Processes in Areas D7, E6, and E7........... 68

Excavated Remains from Areas D7, E6, and E7........... 69

Weaving/Dying Workshop in Areas E6 and E7........... 70

Food Preparation Space in Areas D7 and E7........... 75

The Third Long Room Located in Area D7........... 80

Organic, Charcoal, and Soil Samples........... 81

Ethnographic and Ethnoarchaeological Comparison........... 82

Biblical Evidence........... 84

Iron Age Social Structure........... 84

Conclusions........... 85

Chapter 3: Foreign Contact and Trade Relations........... 88

Historic Egyptian Connections........... 89

Foreign Contact in Times of War........... 91

Malacological Remains........... 92

Participation in the Incense Trade........... 95

Figurines and Trade........... 97

Faunal Evidence........... 99

Metal Objects and a Cosmetic Palette........... 102

Textile Production at Tel Halif........... 103

Assyrians the Judahite Textile Trade........... 105

Biblical References to Textile Production........... 106

Conclusions........... 107

Conclusion: Activity and Identity........... 109

Illustrations........... 115

2007 Report: Area E7........... 115

2008 Report: Area E6........... 118

2008 Report: Area E7........... 121

2009 Report: Area D7........... 125

2009 Report: E7/D7 Balk........... 128

Artifacts........... 131

Vessels........... 138

Other Images........... 141

Bibliography........... 143

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