Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid (IHKA)-induced Seizures in Mice: A Model of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE) Open Access

Jeong, Jaewon (Spring 2019)

Permanent URL:


The consensus definition of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE) is new onset of refractory status epilepticus without a clear acute or active structural, toxic, or metabolic cause. Patients with NORSE do not have active epilepsy or other preexisting relevant neurological disorder. Febrile Infection Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) is a subset of NORSE that requires febrile infection, with fever occurring between 2 weeks and 24 hours prior to onset of refractory status epilepticus. There currently does not exist an animal model to study NORSE/FIRES in detail. This study argues that intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) is a valid model for NORSE/FIRES supported by pathological changes, behavioral manifestations, immune response, and electroencephalography data. Although previously viewed only as a model for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE), the questionable existence of a latent period between the acute epileptic phase and chronic epileptic phase challenges this notion. This study aimed to characterize more thoroughly the features of IHKA that are common to NORSE. Our data suggested that IHKA is a valid model for NORSE/FIRES.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Materials and Methods. 5

Animals 5

Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid (IHKA) Surgery. 5

Post-Operative Care. 6

EEG Recording. 6

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) 7

Results. 8

Figures. 10

Discussion. 13

References. 16

About this Honors Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
  • English
Research Field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files