Change in Neighborhood Deprivation, Residential Mobility, and Early Academic Achievement among First Grade Students in Georgia Open Access

Owens, Lauren (2014)

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Background: Early childhood cognitive development is an important component in establishing a solid foundation that affects the trajectory of a person's life. Early childhood cognitive development is impacted by and/or associated with socioeconomic status, maternal education level, nurturing and enrichment in the home environment, household stability, and neighborhood disadvantage. This analysis examined the association of change in neighborhood deprivation with the odds of failure of the three Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT).

Methods: Data are from the Georgia Birth to School Cohort; 19,805 students with linked birth and first grade school records were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between census tract level deprivation and the odds of failing the three CRCTs.

Results: The logistic regression models indicated that change in neighborhood deprivation, while controlling for baseline deprivation, gender, maternal marital status, maternal race, and an interaction term between change in deprivation and marital status, was predictive of failure of the CRCT. Compared to those who did not move or had no net change in deprivation, the odds of failing for those with the biggest increase in deprivation was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.97) for reading; 1.45 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.82) for English language arts, and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08) for math. The odds of failure increased across all three tests when examining the interaction term of change in deprivation and marital status.

Conclusion: In addition to change in neighborhood deprivation and residential mobility being significant predictors of failure of the CRCT, the multiplicative interaction between change in neighborhood deprivation and marital status was also significant. Further research should investigate the relationship between neighborhood deprivation, residential mobility, and marital status, and their effects on early childhood development.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Literature Review........... 1

Methods........... 11

Results........... 17

Discussion........... 22

Strengths and Limitations....... 26

References........... 30

Tables........... 38

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of the first grade students in Georgia overall and among those who failed the reading, math, and ELA CRCTs....... 38

Table 2. Descriptive statistics for those students whose census tract did not change between their birth and that of the next younger sibling and across the quintiles of change in NDI....... 40

Table 3. Distribution of change in NDI at the census tract level between a student's birth and that of a subsequent sibling in the linked cohort....... 43

Table 4. Baseline logistic models of the failure of the reading, math, and ELA CRCTs controlling for change in NDI and baseline NDI....... 44

Table 5. Modeling evolution for CRCT Reading scores....... 45

Table 6. Final adjusted models for failing ELA and Math CRCTs....... 49

Table 7. Odds ratios of strata of change in NDI among ever unmarried and always married mothers for all three CRCT tests....... 50

Appendix - IRB Letter........... 51

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