Assessing the Relationship Between Water-fetching Distance and Equitable Access to and Use of Improved Water Sources in Rural Ethiopia Público

Chan, Jacqueline Yoi Yan (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/gb19f6310?locale=es
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Abstract

Lack of access to safe drinking water is experienced most by those living in poverty, making them vulnerable targets to water-related adverse health effects. This study aimed to increase understanding of the barriers and mediators to safe drinking water access in rural communities and identify subpopulations which are missed by a constructed improved water supply intervention. Mixed research methods, including community mapping, interviews, focus group discussions, household surveys, and GPS data collection were used to explore factors impacting water access in four rural communities in Oromia, Ethiopia. This study focuses on the quantitative results from household survey analysis. We utilized data from 161 households in 4 communities to assess the relationship between water collection travel time and a household's choice of using an improved water source exclusively for drinking and cooking purposes. Households which did not exclusively use an improved drinking water source traveled relatively farther to collect water from the improved water source compared to households which did exclusively use an improved drinking water source. Our logistic regression model indicated that households traveling further than 15 minutes were less likely to exclusively use an improved drinking water source; however, the odds ratio confidence intervals were wide and we did not find evidence that they were significantly different. A higher proportion of households which did not exclusively use an improved drinking water source were with an illiterate female heads of household, a disabled member of the households, higher water collection container capacity, higher storage capacity, and collected water for income generation or livelihood uses. Household water quantity was relatively higher among households which did not exclusively use the improved water source for drinking; however, there was no clear correlation between proximity to improved water source and household water quantity. Overall, our results indicate that proximity to an improved water source has a moderate effect on households' exclusive use of an improved drinking water source.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I: BACKGROUND/LITERATURE REVIEW...1

Global Impact of Water Access...1
Water Access in Rural Ethiopia...1
Challenges in Measuring Water Access...2
Research Study Sites...4
Project Objectives...6

CHAPTER II: MANUSCRIPT...9

INTRODUCTION...9
METHODS...11

Study Sites...15
Partner Organizations...14
Study Design...15
Data Analysis Methods...18

RESULTS...23

Univariate Analysis...23
Bivariate Analysis...25
Household Water Quantity Analysis...30
Multivariate Analysis...32

DISCUSSION...34

Summary of Key Findings...34
Strengths and Limitations...37
Future Research...38

REFERENCES...40

CHAPTER III: PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS & FUTURE DIRECTIONS...44
APPENDICES...46

APPENDIX A: Trend plots of water quantity and proximity to water source...46
APPENDIX B: Maps of households' exclusive use of improved drinking source...47
APPENDIX C: Informed Consent Form...49
APPENDIX D: Household Survey...51
APPENDIX E: Community Water Mapping Questionnaire...72
APPENDIX F: Waterpoint Observation & Interview Questionnaire...75
APPENDIX G: IRB Approval Letter...82

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