The Rhetoric of the Deuteronomic Code: Its Structures and Devices Open Access

Hur, Shin Wook (2013)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/fn106z141?locale=en
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Abstract

The rhetoric of the Deuteronomic Code (hereafter DC) has evaded scholarly studies over the years even though it was a common idea that Deuteronomy is a rhetorical work formed into Moses's speeches. This dissertation argues that the DC is also rhetorical from the view that the DC is well-organized and has its own rhetorical structures, full of rhetorical devices. The DC as a whole is formed into a chiastic structure and each regulations in especially Deut 21:10-25:19 have their own rhetorical structure such as command-only structure, command-first structure, motivation-first structure, no-motivational structure, triadic structure, and combined structure. In addition to the rhetorical structure individual regulations employ rhetorical devices such as repetition, chiasmus, inclusio, alternation of prescription and proscription, and theological themes. This dissertation also argues that these rhetorical features were effective on ground not only that the DC touches the exigences of the assumed audiences, but also that the later biblical authors based their ideas upon the DC and utilized the DC to support world view.

Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction ................................................................................................. 1

I. Issues ................................................................................................................... 1

II. Method ............................................................................................................... 6

III. Plan of the Study .............................................................................................. 9

IV. History of Scholarship .................................................................................... 12

A. Rhetoric in the Study of the Hebrew Bible ........................................... 12

1. Art of Composition ..................................................................... 12

2. Art of Persuasion ......................................................................... 15

B. Rhetoric in the Deuteronomic Code19

V. Classical Forensic Rhetoric and Hebrew Legal Rhetoric ................................ 25

A. Forensic Rhetoric of Greek and Rome ................................................. 26

B. Legal Speeches in the Hebrew Bible .................................................... 31

1. Deuteronomy 22:13-21 .............................................................. 31

2. Joshua 7: The Case of Achan ...................................................... 33

3. Genesis 38: The Story of Tamar ................................................. 35

4. Summary ..................................................................................... 36

VI. Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 37

Chapter Two: Rhetorical Context of the Deuteronomic Code ......................................... 39

I. Authorship ......................................................................................................... 41

A. Four Suggestions for Authorship .......................................................... 41

B. Synthetic Views .................................................................................... 50

II. The Audiences ................................................................................................. 55

A. Mosaic Period: Literary Audience ........................................................ 57

B. Josianic Audience in the Reign of King Josiah .................................... 60

C. Exilic Audiences ................................................................................... 64

D. Post-exilic Audience ............................................................................. 68

E. Summary ............................................................................................... 69

III. Exigences ....................................................................................................... 70

A. The Mosaic Period: Literary World ...................................................... 73

B. The Josianic Period ............................................................................... 74

C. The Exilic Period .................................................................................. 75

D. The Post-Exilic Period ......................................................................... 77

IV. The Purposes of the DC .................................................................................. 78

V. Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 83

Chapter Three: The Rhetoric of the Deuteronomic Code ................................................ 85

I. Rhetorical Structure ........................................................................................... 86

A. The Structure of the Deuteronomic Code as a Whole ........................... 86

1. Scholarships on the Arrangement of the Deuteronomic Code .... 87

2. The Structure and Arrangement of the Deuteronomic Code....... 95

3. Conclusion ................................................................................ 129

B. Structure of Individual Laws ............................................................... 131

1. Command-Only Structure ......................................................... 134

2. Command-First Structure ......................................................... 139

3. Motivation-First Structure ........................................................ 144

4. No-Motivation Structure ........................................................... 147

5. Triadic Structure ....................................................................... 149

6. Combination of Rhetorical Structures ...................................... 156

7. Conclusion ................................................................................ 162

II. Rhetorical Devices ......................................................................................... 164

A. Repetition ............................................................................................ 164

1. The Place Yahweh will Choose in 12:4-27 .............................. 166

2. "Let's Go And Worship Other Gods" in 13:2-19 ..................... 168

3. Things to Eat And Not to Eat in 14:3-21 .................................. 169

4. Repetition with Variation in 20:5-8 .......................................... 171

B. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 174

1. 12:13-19 ................................................................................... 177

2. 15:2aβ-3 .................................................................................... 181

3. 16:9 ........................................................................................... 183

4. 16:18-20 ................................................................................... 185

C. Inclusio ................................................................................................ 187

1. Inclusio in the Large Scope of the DC ...................................... 188

2. Inclusio in Several Literary Units ............................................. 189

3. Inclusio in a Small Unit ............................................................ 190

D. Alternation of Prescription and Proscription ....................................... 193

1. Contrast on Verbs ...................................................................... 193

2. Contrast on Adverbial Phrases .................................................. 195

3. Contrast on Objects ................................................................... 197

E. Use of Theological Concepts ............................................................... 198

1. Fear of Yahweh ......................................................................... 198

2. Abomination to Yahweh ............................................................ 200

3. Purification of Evil .................................................................... 201

4. Memory 203

F. Conclusion ........................................................................................... 208

Chapter Four: Case Studies (Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19) ............................................. 210

I. 21:10-14 A Marriage of a Captive Woman ..................................................... 211

A. Rhetorical Structure ............................................................................. 212

B. Rhetorical Devices: Word Choice ....................................................... 217

1. "to take" versus "to be"................................................... 217

2. "to love": Allusion to Yahweh's Love for Israel ............................... 219

II. 21:15-17 Preserving the Right of the first-born Son ..................................... 221

A. Rhetorical Structure ............................................................................. 222

B. Repetition of key words in a Chiastic Pattern ..................................... 226

III. 21:18-21 The Disobedient Son .................................................................... 228

A. Word Choice ........................................................................................ 229

B. Repetition with Elaboration ................................................................ 231

C. Pace ..................................................................................................... 233

IV. 21:22-23 A Hanged Body ............................................................................. 234

V. 22:1-4 Restoration of Neighbor's Lost or Endangered Properties ................ 235

A. Alternation of Proscriptions and Prescriptions .................................... 236

B. Inclusio ................................................................................................ 237

C. Repetition of Keywords ...................................................................... 238

1. Your Fellow Israelite ...................................................... 238

2. "And thus you shall do to with . . ." ............... 238

VI. 22:5 Prohibition on transvestism .................................................................. 239

A. Command-First Structure .................................................................... 240

B. The Use of Major Concept: Abomination to Yahweh ......................... 240

VII. 22:6-7 Preserving a Mother Bird ................................................................ 241

A. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 241

B. Motivation with blessing ..................................................................... 243

VIII. 22:8 A Parapet on a Newly Built House .................................................... 244

A. The Motif of the Guilt of Bloodshed ................................................... 244

B. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 246

IX. 22:9-11 A Prohibition on Mixing Two Kinds .............................................. 247

X. 22:12 Tassels on Garments ............................................................................ 250

A. Comparison with Numbers 15:37-41 ................................................. 252

B. Rhetorical Techniques in Deut 22:12 .................................................. 253

XI. 22:13-21 The Accused Woman .................................................................... 254

A. Rhetorical Structure ............................................................................. 256

B. Rhetorical Devices .............................................................................. 261

1. Contrast with Words .................................................................. 261

2. Contrast of Protagonists ............................................................ 263

XII. 22:22-29 Sexual Violence .......................................................................... 264

XIII. 23:1 Prohibition on Incest .......................................................................... 270

XIV. 23:2-9 Membership in Yahweh's Assembly .............................................. 272

A. Accumulation and Synonymous Parallelism ....................................... 273

B. Change of Subject: From Third Person to Second Person .................. 276

XV. 23:10-15 Purity of the Military Camp ........................................................ 278

A. Rhetorical Structure: Elaboration with Examples ............................... 278

B. Inclusio and Chiasmus ........................................................................ 280

C. Holding Important Information until the End (vv. 13-14) .................. 280

XVI. 23:16-17 A Fugitive Slave ........................................................................ 281

A. Rhetorical Structure ............................................................................. 282

B. Verbal association ................................................................................ 283

XVII. 23:18-19 Prohibition on Prostitution ....................................................... 285

A. Paired Words ....................................................................................... 286

B. Repetition ............................................................................................ 287

C. Abomination of Yahweh ...................................................................... 288

XVIII. 23:20-21 Prohibition against Taking Interest ......................................... 288

A. Repetition and Chiasmus ..................................................................... 288

B. Motivation with Yahweh's blessing .................................................... 290

XIX. 23:22-24 Fulfillment of Vows ................................................................... 291

A. Motivations ......................................................................................... 291

B. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 295

XX. 23:25-26 Limitation on Foraging ............................................................... 297

A. The Combination of Permission and Limitation ................................. 297

B. The Use of a Same Structure ............................................................... 298

XXI. 24:1-4 The Prohibition on the Remarriage with the Former Wife ........... 299

A. Derivation from a Fixed Pattern ......................................................... 300

B. Offering Reasons for the Prohibition .................................................. 302

1. huttamma'ah ............................................................................. 302

2. Abomination of Yahweh ........................................................... 304

3. The Communal Responsibility to Preserve the Land Pure ....... 305

XXII. 24:5 One year Exemption from Military Service ..................................... 306

A. Rhetorical Placement ........................................................................... 308

B. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 309

XXIII. 24:6 Prohibition on Taking a Pledge ....................................................... 310

XXIV. 24:7 Kidnapping ...................................................................................... 312

XXV. 24:8-9 Dealing with "a Scale Disease" .................................................... 313

A. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 313

B. Historical memory ............................................................................... 315

XXVI. 24:10-13 The Law of Pledge .................................................................. 316

A. Alternation of Proscription and Prescription ....................................... 316

XXVII. 24:14-15 Timely Payment of Wages Due ............................................. 319

A. Specification with a Word Choice, Paired Words, and Alliteration .... 319

B. Motivation with Emotional appeal, Yahweh's Involvement, and the conviction of Guilt ................................................................. 322

XXVIII. 24:16 Individual Liability .................................................................... 322

XXIX. 24:17-18 Concerns for the Social Minorities ........................................ 325

A. Specification ....................................................................................... 325

B. Motivation .......................................................................................... 327

XXX. 24:19-22 Portions for the Social Minorities ........................................... 328

XXXI. 25:1-3 Solve Dispute in Court and Maintain one's Dignity .................. 329

A. Three Consecutive Verbs with Judges as a Subject ............................. 331

B. Change in Addressees from Third Person to Second Person .............. 332

XXXII. 25:4 Do not Muzzle an Ox That is Working ......................................... 332

XXXIII. 25:5-10 Levirate Marriage .................................................................. 335

A. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 337

B. Word Choice ........................................................................................ 339

C. Honor and Shame System: Exposure of a Hidden Thought ................ 340

XXXIV. 25:11-12 Improper Involvement in a Dispute ..................................... 345

A. Rhetorical Structure ............................................................................. 345

B. Connection to Another Regulation ...................................................... 347

XXXV. 25:13-16 Honest Weights and Measures ............................................... 348

A. Repetition of Key Terms in a Paralleled Structure .............................. 348

B. Motivation with Deuteronomistic Theology ....................................... 351

XXXVI. 25:17-19 Wipe out Amalek ................................................................. 352

A. Chiasmus ............................................................................................. 352

B. Thematic Rationalization .................................................................... 354

XXXVII. Summary ............................................................................................ 355

Chaper Five: Rhetorical Effectiveness of the Deuteronomic Code ............................... 362

I. The Deuteronomic Code's Addresses to Exigences ........................................ 364

A. Literary Audience ................................................................................ 364

B. Josianic Audience ................................................................................ 368

C. Exilic Audience ................................................................................... 371

D. Post-exilic Audience ........................................................................... 373

II. Usages of the DC in the Texts outside the DC ............................................... 374

III. Conclusion .................................................................................................... 380

Chaper Six: Conclusion ................................................................................................. 382

Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 388

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